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Anatomy Exam 4 > The pelvis > Flashcards

Flashcards in The pelvis Deck (69):
1

What area of the pelvis is the false pelvis?

Ilium

2

What is does the false pelvis contain?

Pelvic inlet
Does not have any pelvic organs

3

What is the pelvic outlet?

Where everything comes out- feces, urine, babies
It's part of the lesser/true pelvis

4

What is the true pelvis?

Houses the pelvic organs- bladder, reproductive organs etc.

5

What do the pelvic ligaments do?

Prevent the pelvis from rotating superiorly and helps protect the organs

6

Sacrospinous ligaments attachments

Goes from sacrum down to ischial spine

7

sacrotuberous ligaments attachments

goes from sacrum to ischial tuberosity

8

Intraosseous Sacroiliac ligaments attachments

Goes from sacrum to ilium

9

What is the purpose of the intraosseous sacroiliac ligament?

Transmit all the force from the upper body to the lower body

10

What are the male pelvis features?

1. Pelvic inlet is heart shaped
2. Pelvic outlet is oval
3. Sub-pubic angle can be estimated with peace fingers
4. Lesser Q-angle

11

What are the female pelvis features?

1. Pelvic inlet is oval shaped
2. Pelvic outlet is circular
3. Sub-pubic angle can't be approximated with peace fingers
4. Pelvis is wider in general
5. Greater Q-angle

12

Origin and Insertion of Piriformis muscle

O: 2nd-4th sacral segments, greater sciatic notch, and sacrotuberous ligament
I: Greater trochanter of femur

13

Innervation of Piriformis muscle

Nerve to the piriformis (S2, S3)

14

Piriformis muscle action

Rotates the thigh laterally, A-Bducts the thigh, and holds the femur in the acetabulum

15

Obturator internus origin and insertion

O: Pelvic surface of ilium and ischium, obturator membrane
I: Greater trochanter of femur

16

Action of the obturator internus muscle

rotates the thigh laterally, holds the femur in the acetabulum

17

Innervation of obturator internus muscle

Nerve to the obturator internus
L5,S1,S2

18

Characteristics of obturator internus muscle

1. Passes through lesser sciatic foramen
2. Lined by the obturator internus membrane which forms the tendinous arch

19

Characteristics of piriformis muscle

1. Passes through greater sciatic foramen
2. Posterior muscle
3. Provides a bed for the sacral plexus

20

Pelvic floor contents

1. coccygeus muscles
2. Levator ani muscles

21

What are the Levator ani muscles?

1. Puporectalis
2. Pubococcygeus
3. Iliococcygeus

22

Origin and insertion of levator ani muscle

O: Body of pubis, tendinous arch of levator ani, ischial spine
I: perioneal body, coccyx, anococcygeal ligament, walls of prostate, vagina, rectum, anal canal

23

Action of levator ani muscle

Supports pelvic viscera, resists increases in intra-abdominal pressure

24

Levator ani innervation

1. Nerve to levator ani (S4)
2. Inferior Rectal nerve
3. Coccygeal plexus

25

Origin and insertion of coccygeus muscle

O: ischial spine
I: Inferior end of sacrum

26

Action of coccygeus muscle

Supports pelvic viscera, flexes coccyx

27

Coccygeus muscle innervation

branches of S4 and S5 nerves

28

Branches of lumbar plexus

1. Lumbosacral trunk
2. Obtruator nerve
3. Accessory Obturator nerve (if present)

29

Sciatic nerve

-Divides into anterior and posterior divisions
-Exits via greater sciatic foramen
-Supplies everything in the leg minus the anterior compartment

30

What is Sciatica?

pain causes from piriformis muscle impinging the sciatic nerve

31

What are the branches from the sciatic nerve?

1. Common femoral/ peroneal
2. Tibial
3. Pudendal
4. Superior and Inferior Gluteal

32

Characteristics of pudendal nerve

1. nerve of shame- goes to genitalia and reproductive parts
2. part of anterior division
3. exits pelvis from greater sciatic foramen
4. enter perineum via lesser sciatic foramen

33

What are the branches of the pudendal nerve?

1. dorsal nerve of the clitoris or penis
2. Perineal nerves
3. Inferior rectal nerve

34

Characteristics of superior gluteal nerve

1. innervates gluteus minimus and medius, and the tensor fascia latae muscles
2. part of the posterior division
3. Exits the pelvis via the greater sciatic forament

35

Characteristics of the inferior gluteal nerve

1. Innervates the gluteus maximus
2. Part of the posterior division
3. Exits the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen

36

Where does the sympathetic chain end?

ganglion impar

37

What levels are the sympathetics located?

T11-L2 spinal segments
synapse in inferior mesenteric ganglion

38

What levels are parasympathetics located?

S2-S4
called pelvic splanchnic nerves

39

Where do parasympathetics synapse?

1. In ganglia
2. On target organ or gut plexus

40

What are the branches of the common iliac artery?

1. Internal iliac
2. External iliac

41

What are the divisions of the internal iliac artery?

1. Anterior division
2. Posterior division

42

What arteries are in the anterior division?

1. Umbilical
2. Obturator
3. Inferior vesicular
4. Middle rectal
5. Internal pudendal
6. Inferior gluteal
7. Uterine

43

What artery branches from interior vesicular?

prostatic

44

What artery branches from the uterine artery?

vaginal

45

What does the umbilical artery supply?

Gives off the superior vesicular artery that supplies the bladder and ductus deferens in males

46

What does the obturator artery supply?

Pelvic muscles, ilium, and head of the femur

47

What does the inferior vesicular artery supply?

Bladder and ureters

48

What does the prostatic artery supply?

seminal gland and prostate

49

What does the rectal artery supply?

Seminal gland, prostate, and rectum

50

What does the internal pudendal artery supply?

Main artery to perineal skin and urogenital triangle, erectile tissues

51

What does the inferior gluteal artery supply?

Piriformis, coccygeus, levator ani, and gluteus maximus

52

What does the uterine artery supply?

Ureter, uterus, uterine tube, and vagina

53

What does the vaginal artery supply?

Vagina and bladder

54

What arteries are in the posterior division?

1. Iliolumbar
2. Lateral sacral
3. Superior gluteal

55

What does the iliolumbar artery supply?

iliacus, psoas major, quadratus lumborum muscles, cauda equina

56

What does the lateral sacral artery supply?

Piriformis muscle and vertebral column

57

What does the superior gluteal artery supply?

This vessel can come off the anterior!
gluteal medius, gluteal minimus, and the tensor fascia latae

58

Describe the male urethra

1. internal urethral sphincter- bladder muscle continuous with prostate fibromuscular tissue
2. Much longer with 2 curves
3. Passes through the prostate
4. composed of 4 parts

59

What are the 4 parts of the male urethra?

1. Pre-prostatic
2. Prostatic
3. Membranous vs. spongy part
4. external urethral meatus

60

Where are the ejaculatory ducts located?

Part of the prostatic urethra

61

What joins to make the ejaculatory ducts?

seminal vesicles and ductus deferens join and mix with the prostatic ducts to make semen

62

What are the parts of the uterine tubes?

1. Isthmus
2. Ampulla-
3. Infundibulum- opening
4. Fimbriae- finger-like projections

63

Where is the isthmus of the uterus?

Narrow passageway from the body to the cervix

64

What 2 structures are a remnant of the gubernaculum that support the uterus?

1. ovarian ligament
2. Round ligament

65

What are the mesenteries of the broad ligament?

1. Mesovarium- attaches ovareis to mesosalpinx
2. Mesosalpinx- connects uterine horns to uterus
3. Mesometrium- attaches uterus to body wall

66

Innervation of the vagina?

1. lower 1/4 deep perineal branch of pudendal
2. Upper 3/4 autonomics

67

What is the normal placement of the uterus?

anteverted + anteflexed

68

What do the bulbourethral glands do?

secrete before ejaculation to clean the urethra

69

What nerve allows erection of the penis?

Parasympathetic fibers of the prostatic nerve plexus
During a prostate removal these fibers are often resected causing impotency