Hip and Knee Joint Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Exam 4 > Hip and Knee Joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hip and Knee Joint Deck (41):
1

What type of joint is the hip joint?

Ball-and-socket type of synovial joint

2

Describe the articular capsule of the hip joint

-strong and dense fibrous structure
-Not a complete capsule
-Synovial membrane lines the capsule and covers portion of femur neck
-Synovial joint inside

3

What are the ligaments of the hip joint?

1. Iliofemoral ligament
2. Pubofemoral ligament
3. Ischiofemoral ligament
4. Ligament capitis femoris
5. Acetabular labrum
6. Transverse acetabular ligament

4

Where is the iliofemoral ligament attached?

1. Apex attached to AIIS
2. Base attached to intertrochanteric line

5

What does the iliofemoral ligament do?

Aids in avoiding hyperextension and external rotation of the hip
Helps maintain and erect posture

6

Where is the pubofemoral ligament?

1. Apex blends with iliofemoral ligament
2. Base attached to superior ramus of pubis and obturator crest

7

What does the pubofemoral ligament do?

Aids in avoiding hyperextension, abduction, and external rotation of the hip

8

Where is the ischiofemoral ligament located?

Attached to body of ischium below and behind acetabulum
Fibers attach laterally to femoral neck and below greater trochanter

9

What does the ischiofemoral ligament do?

Aids in avoiding hyperextension and internal rotation

10

Where is the ligament capitis femoris located?

1. Attached to fovea capitis femoris
2. Base goes to the transverse ligament

11

What does the ligament capitis femoris do?

1. Important for children
2. Takes blood vessels to femur head
3. Becomes tense when flexed thigh is adducted

12

Where is the acetabular labrum located?

Margin of the acetabulum

13

What does the acetabular labrum do?

Keeps the head of the femur inside the acetabulum

14

Where is the transverse acetabular ligament located?

Continuation of the acetabular labrum across the acetabular notch

15

What are the arteries that supply the hip joint?

All derived from the obturator aretery
1. Medial circumflex femoral
2. Lateral circumflex femoral
3. Inferior and superior gluteal
4. 1st perforating

16

What happens to vessels with a hip fracture?

Subcapital fracture can break the vessels that go to the femur head leads to necrosis of the head

17

What are the nerves to the hip joint?

1. Femoral
2. Obturator
3. Superior gluteal
4. Inferior gluteal
5. Sciatic

18

What artery is cut in a subcapital hip fracture?

Retinacular artery causing the head of the femur to lose its blood supply

19

What type of joint is the knee joint?

Condyloid joint which allows rotation, hinge movement, and gliding

20

Is the knee joint strong?

Mechanically the knee joint is weak but the ligaments make it strong

21

What is the articulation of the knee joint?

Between the rounded condyles of the femur and covered in cartilage

22

Describe the articular capsule of the knee joint

1. Fairly strong
2. Incomplete at places due to muscles being on the inside of the capsule
3. Attached to margins of the articular surface
4. Strengthened by ligaments

23

What is the quadriceps tendon?

Tendon that encloses the patella
It is a medial and lateral retinacula

24

What are the ligaments of the knee joint?

1. Patellar ligament
2. Medial collateral ligament
3. Fibular collateral ligament
4. Tibial collateral ligament
5. Oblique popliteal ligament
6. Arcuate popliteal ligament
7. Coronary ligament
8. Intra-articular ligament

25

What causes the collateral ligaments to become tight?

Extension and stabilization of the knee joint

26

What do the intra-articular ligaments do?

-Provide 5 ligaments that attach the tibia to the femur
1. Transverse ligament
2. Anterior meniscofemoral ligament
3. Posterior meniscofemoral ligament
4. Anterior cruciate ligament
5. Posterior cruciate ligament

27

Describe the anterior cruciate ligament

It is the ACL of the knee
-long but weak compared to the posterior cruciate
-stops hyperextension of the knee
-From the anterior interchondral fossa to the lateral condyle of the femur

28

Describe the posterior cruciate ligament

-Shorter but stronger than anterior cruciate ligament
- Stops hyperflexion at the knee
- From the posterior interchondral fossa to the medial condyle of the femur

29

What is the function of the menisci?

Deepen the articular surface

30

Where do the menisci attach?

1. Interimposed between the femoral and tibial condyles
2. Attached to the tibial condyles
3. The peripheral area is attached to the coronary ligament

31

What nerves innervate the knee joint area?

1. Femoral
2. Obturator
3. Common peroneal and tibial

32

What is the blood supply to the knee joint?

1. Genicular anastomosis
2. Middle genicular artery to the intercondylar structures

33

What are the movements of the knee joint?

1. Flexion via the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus
2. Extension via quadriceps femoris

34

What is a bakers cyst?

1. Synovial fluid escapes into popliteal fossa

35

What is the most common knee injury?

Ligament sprains

36

What is the unhappy triad?

-Involved the tibial collateral ligament, medial meniscus, and ACL
-Worst knee injury
-Occurs when get hit on the lateral side of the knee
-TIbial collateral ligament typically tears

37

What is the anterior and posterior drawer sign?

Determines cruciate tears

38

Describe the anterior cruciate drawer sign

Tests for an ACL tear
-Pull leg anteriorly and the leg will go further than it should

39

Describe the posterior cruciate drawer sign

Tests for a PCL tear
-Push leg back and it will go further back than it should

40

What is genu varum?

bow leg

41

What is genu valgum?

Knock knee