Hip and Knee Joint Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Exam 4 > Hip and Knee Joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hip and Knee Joint Deck (41):

What type of joint is the hip joint?

Ball-and-socket type of synovial joint


Describe the articular capsule of the hip joint

-strong and dense fibrous structure
-Not a complete capsule
-Synovial membrane lines the capsule and covers portion of femur neck
-Synovial joint inside


What are the ligaments of the hip joint?

1. Iliofemoral ligament
2. Pubofemoral ligament
3. Ischiofemoral ligament
4. Ligament capitis femoris
5. Acetabular labrum
6. Transverse acetabular ligament


Where is the iliofemoral ligament attached?

1. Apex attached to AIIS
2. Base attached to intertrochanteric line


What does the iliofemoral ligament do?

Aids in avoiding hyperextension and external rotation of the hip
Helps maintain and erect posture


Where is the pubofemoral ligament?

1. Apex blends with iliofemoral ligament
2. Base attached to superior ramus of pubis and obturator crest


What does the pubofemoral ligament do?

Aids in avoiding hyperextension, abduction, and external rotation of the hip


Where is the ischiofemoral ligament located?

Attached to body of ischium below and behind acetabulum
Fibers attach laterally to femoral neck and below greater trochanter


What does the ischiofemoral ligament do?

Aids in avoiding hyperextension and internal rotation


Where is the ligament capitis femoris located?

1. Attached to fovea capitis femoris
2. Base goes to the transverse ligament


What does the ligament capitis femoris do?

1. Important for children
2. Takes blood vessels to femur head
3. Becomes tense when flexed thigh is adducted


Where is the acetabular labrum located?

Margin of the acetabulum


What does the acetabular labrum do?

Keeps the head of the femur inside the acetabulum


Where is the transverse acetabular ligament located?

Continuation of the acetabular labrum across the acetabular notch


What are the arteries that supply the hip joint?

All derived from the obturator aretery
1. Medial circumflex femoral
2. Lateral circumflex femoral
3. Inferior and superior gluteal
4. 1st perforating


What happens to vessels with a hip fracture?

Subcapital fracture can break the vessels that go to the femur head leads to necrosis of the head


What are the nerves to the hip joint?

1. Femoral
2. Obturator
3. Superior gluteal
4. Inferior gluteal
5. Sciatic


What artery is cut in a subcapital hip fracture?

Retinacular artery causing the head of the femur to lose its blood supply


What type of joint is the knee joint?

Condyloid joint which allows rotation, hinge movement, and gliding


Is the knee joint strong?

Mechanically the knee joint is weak but the ligaments make it strong


What is the articulation of the knee joint?

Between the rounded condyles of the femur and covered in cartilage


Describe the articular capsule of the knee joint

1. Fairly strong
2. Incomplete at places due to muscles being on the inside of the capsule
3. Attached to margins of the articular surface
4. Strengthened by ligaments


What is the quadriceps tendon?

Tendon that encloses the patella
It is a medial and lateral retinacula


What are the ligaments of the knee joint?

1. Patellar ligament
2. Medial collateral ligament
3. Fibular collateral ligament
4. Tibial collateral ligament
5. Oblique popliteal ligament
6. Arcuate popliteal ligament
7. Coronary ligament
8. Intra-articular ligament


What causes the collateral ligaments to become tight?

Extension and stabilization of the knee joint


What do the intra-articular ligaments do?

-Provide 5 ligaments that attach the tibia to the femur
1. Transverse ligament
2. Anterior meniscofemoral ligament
3. Posterior meniscofemoral ligament
4. Anterior cruciate ligament
5. Posterior cruciate ligament


Describe the anterior cruciate ligament

It is the ACL of the knee
-long but weak compared to the posterior cruciate
-stops hyperextension of the knee
-From the anterior interchondral fossa to the lateral condyle of the femur


Describe the posterior cruciate ligament

-Shorter but stronger than anterior cruciate ligament
- Stops hyperflexion at the knee
- From the posterior interchondral fossa to the medial condyle of the femur


What is the function of the menisci?

Deepen the articular surface


Where do the menisci attach?

1. Interimposed between the femoral and tibial condyles
2. Attached to the tibial condyles
3. The peripheral area is attached to the coronary ligament


What nerves innervate the knee joint area?

1. Femoral
2. Obturator
3. Common peroneal and tibial


What is the blood supply to the knee joint?

1. Genicular anastomosis
2. Middle genicular artery to the intercondylar structures


What are the movements of the knee joint?

1. Flexion via the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus
2. Extension via quadriceps femoris


What is a bakers cyst?

1. Synovial fluid escapes into popliteal fossa


What is the most common knee injury?

Ligament sprains


What is the unhappy triad?

-Involved the tibial collateral ligament, medial meniscus, and ACL
-Worst knee injury
-Occurs when get hit on the lateral side of the knee
-TIbial collateral ligament typically tears


What is the anterior and posterior drawer sign?

Determines cruciate tears


Describe the anterior cruciate drawer sign

Tests for an ACL tear
-Pull leg anteriorly and the leg will go further than it should


Describe the posterior cruciate drawer sign

Tests for a PCL tear
-Push leg back and it will go further back than it should


What is genu varum?

bow leg


What is genu valgum?

Knock knee