Flashcards in Hip and Knee Joint Deck (41):
What type of joint is the hip joint?
Ball-and-socket type of synovial joint
Describe the articular capsule of the hip joint
-strong and dense fibrous structure
-Not a complete capsule
-Synovial membrane lines the capsule and covers portion of femur neck
-Synovial joint inside
What are the ligaments of the hip joint?
1. Iliofemoral ligament
2. Pubofemoral ligament
3. Ischiofemoral ligament
4. Ligament capitis femoris
5. Acetabular labrum
6. Transverse acetabular ligament
Where is the iliofemoral ligament attached?
1. Apex attached to AIIS
2. Base attached to intertrochanteric line
What does the iliofemoral ligament do?
Aids in avoiding hyperextension and external rotation of the hip
Helps maintain and erect posture
Where is the pubofemoral ligament?
1. Apex blends with iliofemoral ligament
2. Base attached to superior ramus of pubis and obturator crest
What does the pubofemoral ligament do?
Aids in avoiding hyperextension, abduction, and external rotation of the hip
Where is the ischiofemoral ligament located?
Attached to body of ischium below and behind acetabulum
Fibers attach laterally to femoral neck and below greater trochanter
What does the ischiofemoral ligament do?
Aids in avoiding hyperextension and internal rotation
Where is the ligament capitis femoris located?
1. Attached to fovea capitis femoris
2. Base goes to the transverse ligament
What does the ligament capitis femoris do?
1. Important for children
2. Takes blood vessels to femur head
3. Becomes tense when flexed thigh is adducted
Where is the acetabular labrum located?
Margin of the acetabulum
What does the acetabular labrum do?
Keeps the head of the femur inside the acetabulum
Where is the transverse acetabular ligament located?
Continuation of the acetabular labrum across the acetabular notch
What are the arteries that supply the hip joint?
All derived from the obturator aretery
1. Medial circumflex femoral
2. Lateral circumflex femoral
3. Inferior and superior gluteal
4. 1st perforating
What happens to vessels with a hip fracture?
Subcapital fracture can break the vessels that go to the femur head leads to necrosis of the head
What are the nerves to the hip joint?
3. Superior gluteal
4. Inferior gluteal
What artery is cut in a subcapital hip fracture?
Retinacular artery causing the head of the femur to lose its blood supply
What type of joint is the knee joint?
Condyloid joint which allows rotation, hinge movement, and gliding
Is the knee joint strong?
Mechanically the knee joint is weak but the ligaments make it strong
What is the articulation of the knee joint?
Between the rounded condyles of the femur and covered in cartilage
Describe the articular capsule of the knee joint
1. Fairly strong
2. Incomplete at places due to muscles being on the inside of the capsule
3. Attached to margins of the articular surface
4. Strengthened by ligaments
What is the quadriceps tendon?
Tendon that encloses the patella
It is a medial and lateral retinacula
What are the ligaments of the knee joint?
1. Patellar ligament
2. Medial collateral ligament
3. Fibular collateral ligament
4. Tibial collateral ligament
5. Oblique popliteal ligament
6. Arcuate popliteal ligament
7. Coronary ligament
8. Intra-articular ligament
What causes the collateral ligaments to become tight?
Extension and stabilization of the knee joint
What do the intra-articular ligaments do?
-Provide 5 ligaments that attach the tibia to the femur
1. Transverse ligament
2. Anterior meniscofemoral ligament
3. Posterior meniscofemoral ligament
4. Anterior cruciate ligament
5. Posterior cruciate ligament
Describe the anterior cruciate ligament
It is the ACL of the knee
-long but weak compared to the posterior cruciate
-stops hyperextension of the knee
-From the anterior interchondral fossa to the lateral condyle of the femur
Describe the posterior cruciate ligament
-Shorter but stronger than anterior cruciate ligament
- Stops hyperflexion at the knee
- From the posterior interchondral fossa to the medial condyle of the femur
What is the function of the menisci?
Deepen the articular surface
Where do the menisci attach?
1. Interimposed between the femoral and tibial condyles
2. Attached to the tibial condyles
3. The peripheral area is attached to the coronary ligament
What nerves innervate the knee joint area?
3. Common peroneal and tibial
What is the blood supply to the knee joint?
1. Genicular anastomosis
2. Middle genicular artery to the intercondylar structures
What are the movements of the knee joint?
1. Flexion via the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus
2. Extension via quadriceps femoris
What is a bakers cyst?
1. Synovial fluid escapes into popliteal fossa
What is the most common knee injury?
What is the unhappy triad?
-Involved the tibial collateral ligament, medial meniscus, and ACL
-Worst knee injury
-Occurs when get hit on the lateral side of the knee
-TIbial collateral ligament typically tears
What is the anterior and posterior drawer sign?
Determines cruciate tears
Describe the anterior cruciate drawer sign
Tests for an ACL tear
-Pull leg anteriorly and the leg will go further than it should
Describe the posterior cruciate drawer sign
Tests for a PCL tear
-Push leg back and it will go further back than it should
What is genu varum?