Flashcards in Anatomy Overview Deck (46):
What are the functions of the upper and lower oesophageal sphincters?
Regulate movement of material into and out of the oesophagus
What are the four layers of the oesophagus?
What epithelium type lines the mucosa of the oesophagus?
The submucosa of the oesophagus contains mucous glands which
secrete mucous via ducts and provide lubrication
What are the functions of the fundus of the stomach?
What are the functions of the body of the stomach?
Intrinsic factor production
What are the curvatures of the stomach?
Lesser and greater curvatures
What is the last region of the stomach?
What are the lobes of the liver?
Where do blood vessels, lymph vessels, ducts and nerves enter and exit the liver?
Via the porta hepatis
What is the only area of the liver not covered by connective tissue?
What are the main functions of the liver?
Blood filtration and detoxification
Production and secretion of bile
What cells are in the endocrine portion of the pancreas and what do they produce?
Islets of Langerhans
Insulin, glucagon, somatostatin
What cells are in the exocrine portion of the pancreas?
Where do the main pancreatic duct and common bile duct join the duodenum?
Sphincter of Oddi
What is the exocrine pancreas responsible for?
Digestive function of the pancreas
What are the endocrine functions of the pancreas?
Secretion of various substances into the blood
What are the three parts of the small intestine?
Where in the small intestine does most of the nutrient absorption occur?
In the jejunum
What is the longest part of the small intestine?
The absorptive surface of the small intestine is increased by;
circular folds, villi and microvilli
The villi of the small intestine are responsible for absorption and the crypts are responsible for
What muscle layer of the large intestine is incomplete?
The longitudinal muscle layer
What is the name given to the 3 strips of longitudinal muscle running along the entire length of the outside of the colon?
The contractions of the teniae coli cause
What kind of epithelium is the mucosa of the large intestine composed of?
What are the main components of the large intestine?
What are the common components of the alimentary wall?
The fourth layer of the alimentary wall depends on what?
Whether the organ is intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal
If an organ is retroperitoneal, the fourth layer of the alimentary wall is
If an organ is intraperitoneal, the fourth layer of the alimentary wall is
What features of the intestines act to increase absorptive surface area?
What is the mesentery?
A fold of membranous tissue that arises from the posterior wall of the peritoneal cavity
What are the main arterial supplies of the GI tract?
Superior mesenteric artery
Inferior mesenteric artery
To what lymph nodes do the stomach lymph vessels drain?
L and R gastric nodes, L and R gastroepiploic nodes and eventually to coeliac nodes
To what lymph nodes do the duodenal lymph vessels drain?
Upwards via pancreaticoduodenal nodes to gastroduodenal nodes then coeliac nodes
Downwards via pancreaticoduodenal nodes to superior mesenteric nodes
To what lymph nodes do the jejunum and ileum lymph vessels drain?
Via intermediate mesenteric nodes to superior mesenteric
To what lymph nodes to the lymph vessels of the caecum drain?
To what lymph nodes do the lymph vessels of the ascending colon drain?
Paracolic lymph nodes then superior mesenteric nodes
To what lymph nodes do the lymph vessels of the transverse colon drain?
Proximal two thirds drain to middle colic nodes then superior mesenteric
Distal third drains to colic nodes then inferior mesenteric
To what lymph nodes do the lymph vessels of the descending colon drain?
Colic lymph nodes then inferior mesenteric
To what lymph nodes do the liver lymph vessels drain?
Coeliac lymph nodes
To what lymph nodes do the lymph vessels of the gallbladder eventually drain?
Coeliac lymph nodes
To what lymph nodes do the lymph vessels of the pancreas eventually drain?
Coeliac and superior mesenteric nodes
To what lymph nodes do the lymph vessels of the spleen drain?
Coeliac lymph nodes