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Alimentary System > Anatomy Overview > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Overview Deck (46):
1

What are the functions of the upper and lower oesophageal sphincters?

Regulate movement of material into and out of the oesophagus

2

What are the four layers of the oesophagus?

Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis Externa
Adventitia

3

What epithelium type lines the mucosa of the oesophagus?

Stratified squamous

4

The submucosa of the oesophagus contains mucous glands which

secrete mucous via ducts and provide lubrication

5

What are the functions of the fundus of the stomach?

Storage

6

What are the functions of the body of the stomach?

Storage
Mucous production
HCl production
Pepsinogen production
Intrinsic factor production

7

What are the curvatures of the stomach?

Lesser and greater curvatures

8

What is the last region of the stomach?

Pyloric region

9

What are the lobes of the liver?

Left
Right
Caudate
Quadrate

10

Where do blood vessels, lymph vessels, ducts and nerves enter and exit the liver?

Via the porta hepatis

11

What is the only area of the liver not covered by connective tissue?

Bare area

12

What are the main functions of the liver?

Blood filtration and detoxification
Production and secretion of bile

13

What cells are in the endocrine portion of the pancreas and what do they produce?

Islets of Langerhans
Insulin, glucagon, somatostatin

14

What cells are in the exocrine portion of the pancreas?

Acinar cells

15

Where do the main pancreatic duct and common bile duct join the duodenum?

Sphincter of Oddi

16

What is the exocrine pancreas responsible for?

Digestive function of the pancreas

17

What are the endocrine functions of the pancreas?

Secretion of various substances into the blood

18

What are the three parts of the small intestine?

Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum

19

Where in the small intestine does most of the nutrient absorption occur?

In the jejunum

20

What is the longest part of the small intestine?

Ileum

21

The absorptive surface of the small intestine is increased by;

circular folds, villi and microvilli

22

The villi of the small intestine are responsible for absorption and the crypts are responsible for

secretion

23

What muscle layer of the large intestine is incomplete?

The longitudinal muscle layer

24

What is the name given to the 3 strips of longitudinal muscle running along the entire length of the outside of the colon?

Teniae coli

25

The contractions of the teniae coli cause

the haustra

26

What kind of epithelium is the mucosa of the large intestine composed of?

Simple columnar

27

What are the main components of the large intestine?

Caecum
Ascending colon
Transverse colon
Descending colon
Sigmoid colon

28

What are the common components of the alimentary wall?

Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis externa

29

The fourth layer of the alimentary wall depends on what?

Whether the organ is intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal

30

If an organ is retroperitoneal, the fourth layer of the alimentary wall is

adventitia

31

If an organ is intraperitoneal, the fourth layer of the alimentary wall is

serosa

32

What features of the intestines act to increase absorptive surface area?

Circular folds
Villi
Microvilli

33

What is the mesentery?

A fold of membranous tissue that arises from the posterior wall of the peritoneal cavity

34

What are the main arterial supplies of the GI tract?

Coeliac trunk
Superior mesenteric artery
Inferior mesenteric artery

35

To what lymph nodes do the stomach lymph vessels drain?

L and R gastric nodes, L and R gastroepiploic nodes and eventually to coeliac nodes

36

To what lymph nodes do the duodenal lymph vessels drain?

Upwards via pancreaticoduodenal nodes to gastroduodenal nodes then coeliac nodes
Downwards via pancreaticoduodenal nodes to superior mesenteric nodes

37

To what lymph nodes do the jejunum and ileum lymph vessels drain?

Via intermediate mesenteric nodes to superior mesenteric

38

To what lymph nodes to the lymph vessels of the caecum drain?

Superior mesenteric

39

To what lymph nodes do the lymph vessels of the ascending colon drain?

Paracolic lymph nodes then superior mesenteric nodes

40

To what lymph nodes do the lymph vessels of the transverse colon drain?

Proximal two thirds drain to middle colic nodes then superior mesenteric
Distal third drains to colic nodes then inferior mesenteric

41

To what lymph nodes do the lymph vessels of the descending colon drain?

Colic lymph nodes then inferior mesenteric

42

To what lymph nodes do the liver lymph vessels drain?

Coeliac lymph nodes

43

To what lymph nodes do the lymph vessels of the gallbladder eventually drain?

Coeliac lymph nodes

44

To what lymph nodes do the lymph vessels of the pancreas eventually drain?

Coeliac and superior mesenteric nodes

45

To what lymph nodes do the lymph vessels of the spleen drain?

Coeliac lymph nodes

46

How can the examination of lymph nodes be useful clinically?

Enlarged lymph nodes felt on palpation can be a sign of disease/infection
The extent of metastases can be determined surgically by resecting and examining the lymph nodes draining from the area of malignancy