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Flashcards in Anorectal Disorders Deck (17):
1

Ano-rectal abnormalities can be;

congenital/acquired
local/systemic
benign/malignant
early/late

2

What are the most common presentations of ano-rectal conditions?

Pain
Haemorrhage
Dysfunction

3

Ano-rectal conditions can be caused by;

Inflammation
Infection
Malignancy
Trauma

4

Give an example of a congenital ano-rectal condition

Imperforate anus
Uro-genital fistulae
Hirschprung's Myenteric Plexus Deficiency

5

Give 5 examples of acquired ano-rectal conditions

Haemorrhoids
Fissure
Abscess
Fistula-in-ano
Ulceration
Cancer
Incontinence

6

How do haemorrhoids usually present?

Itching/irritation/pain around the anus
Painful bowel movements
Bleeding from anus after defaecation

7

How can haemorrhoids be treated?

Stapled anopexy
Ultrasound guided ligation

8

How are anal fissures staged?

As acute or chronic

9

At what point is an anal fissure chronic?

After it has been present for more than 6 weeks

10

How are anal fissures treated?

By relaxing the internal anal sphincter;
medically - topical nitric oxide, glyceryl trinitrate paste or diltiazem calcium blocker
surgically - internal lateral sphincterotomy

11

What is the treatment for peri-anal abscess?

Incision and drainage

12

At what locations can a peri-anal abscess occur?

Submucosal
Intersphincteric
Ischiorectal
Perianal

13

What is the typical presentation of fistula-in-ano?

Pain and swelling around the anus
Pain during bowel movements

14

What are the treatment options for fistula-in-ano?

Fistulotomy - if superficial
Seton suture, fistula plug or permacol paste if trans-sphincteric

15

What are the possible causes of anal ulceration?

Crohn's disease
Malignancy
Syphilis chancre
Nicorandil

16

What is the treatment for anal squamous cell cancer?

Radiotherapy and surgery

17

What is the treatment for rectal adenocarcinoma?

Neo-adjuvant chemo and radiotherapy and laparoscopic resection