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Flashcards in GI Investigation Deck (17):
1

How should you start investigations for patients presenting with altered bowel habit, diarrhoea or constipation, and rectal bleeding?

With simple and non-invasive procedures if possible, to avoid unnecessary discomfort for the patient

2

What bedside investigations should be done for a patient presenting with altered bowel habit, diarrhoea or constipation, and rectal bleeding?

BMI
Pulse oximetry
ECG
Capillary glucose
Urinalysis

3

What other non-invasive investigations should be done for a patient presenting with altered bowel habit, diarrhoea or constipation, and rectal bleeding?

Stool culture
Faecal calprotectin
Faecal elastase
Blood analysis
Urin collections
Nutrition screen
Laxative screen
Breath testing

4

Why is testing for faecal calprotectin useful?

Raised in inflammatory conditions, is useful for monitoring activity of a known disease

5

Give 6 blood analysis investigations that could be done in a patient presenting with altered bowel habit, diarrhoea or constipation, and rectal bleeding

U&Es
Calcium/magnesium
LFTs
CRP
Thyroid function
FBC
Coagulation
Haematinics
Hepatic screen
Coeliac serology
Tumour markers

6

Why is it important to test for magnesium and calcium?

If magnesium is low then low calcium levels will be difficult to treat

7

What investigations might be done to assess oesophageal dysmotility and reflux?

Oesophageal pH and manometry

8

What endoscopic investigations might be done for a patient presenting with altered bowel habit, diarrhoea or constipation, and rectal bleeding?

Upper GI endoscopy
Colonoscopy
ERCP
EUS
Enteroscopy
Capsule enteroscopy

9

What regions of the GI tract can be examined through an upper GI endoscopy?

From oesophagus to duodenum

10

What are the risks associated with an upper GI endoscopy?

Aspiration
Perforation
Haemorrhage

11

What regions of the GI tract can be examined using a colonoscopy?

From the rectum to the caecum/terminal ileum

12

What are the risks associated with a colonoscopy?

Perforation
Haemorrhage
Renal impairment due to bowel preparation

13

What can be visualised using ERCP?

Ampulla, biliary system and pancreatic ducts

14

What can be carried out during ERCP?

Biopsy/cytology
Stone removal
Stenting and dilation

15

What are the risks associated with ERCP?

Pancreatitis
Haemorrhage
Perforation
Infection
Mortality

16

What are the advantages/disadvantages of a capsule enteroscopy?

Less invasive investigation but no biopsy is possible

17

What imaging investigations could be done of a patient presenting with altered bowel habit, diarrhoea or constipation, and rectal bleeding?

X-ray
Contrast studies
Ultrasound
CT
MRI
Nuclear medicine