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Pharmacology > Anesthetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anesthetics Deck (33):
1

What drugs are GABAa receptor agonists?

1. Benzodiazepines
2. Propofol
3. Steroids
4. Inhalant anesthetics
5. Barbiturates
6. Etomidate
7. Ethanol

2

Explain the mechanism of GABAa receptor agonists.

They bind GABAa receptors which opens the Cl- channel , CL- influx hyperpolarizes the membrane. This enhances the effects of GABA.

3

Where are GABAa receptors located?

In the postsynaptic CNS

4

What are benzodiazepines used for?

A tranquilizer/sedative that is part of the induction protocol, used as anticonvulsant, appetite stimulant in cats, and central muscle relaxation.

5

Why are benzodiazepines used as part of induction protocol?

Reduce adverse effects of dissociative anesthetics like ketamine and decreases the dose of other drugs like propofol.

6

Can you use benzodiazepines alone? Why/why not?

No, they are not dependable and can cause paradoxical excitation.

7

What drugs are considered benzodiazepines?

1. Diazepam (Valium)
2. Midazolam (Versed)
3. Zolazepam (Telazol)

8

What is the difference between tranquilizers and sedatives?

Tranquilizers calm without sedation, meaning the patient may override drug effect. Sedatives calm by sedating.

9

What drugs are considered minor tranquilizers?

Benzodiazepines like Diazepam

10

What drugs are considered major tranquilizers?

1. Phenothiazines like acepromazine
2. Butyrophenones

11

Which drugs are considered alpha 2 adrenergic agonist that are sedative analgesics?

1. Xylazine
2. Medetomidine
3. Dexmedetomidine

12

Which drugs are considered alpha 2 adrenergic antagonist?

Reversal agents like atipamezole (antisedan)

13

Which drugs are considered opioid analgesics? 1

1. Agonists: morphine, hydromorphine, fentanyl, and remifentanil
2. Partial agonists:
Buprenorphine and tramadol
3. Agonist-antagonists:
Butorphanol, nalbuphine
4. Antagonists:
Naloxone

14

Which drugs are considered injectable general anesthetics?

1. Barbiturates
2. Dissociates anesthetics like ketamine
3. Propofol
4. Etomidate
5. Alphaxalone

15

Which drugs are considered local anesthetics?

1. Lidocaine

16

Which drugs are considered inhalant general anesthetics?

1. Sevoflurane
2. Isoflurane
3. Desflurane
4. Nitrous Oxide

17

What is the MOA of acepromazine?

Blocks dopaminergic receptors in the basal ganglia and limbic system. Dopamine is involved in awareness and arousal, so if this is blocked from binding to the postsynaptic dopamine receptors, the patient will experience decreases spontaneous motor activity.

18

What kind of drugs do we usually use with acepromazine?

Opioids

19

What are the side effects of acepromazine?

1. Vasodilation
2. Hypotension

20

T/F: Acepromazine is not reversible, has a slow onset and long duration of effect, and undergoes hepatic metabolism.

True!

21

What are the differences between Diazepam and Midazolam?

Diazepam is not water soluble and has slow, undependable IM absorption with a moderate duration of action. Midazolam is water soluble, has a rapid and complete IM absorption, and has a shorter duration of action .

22

What drug is used in euthanasia?

Pentobarbital

23

Wha tis phenobarbital used for?

Epilepsy

24

With barbiturates, since the undissociated form can only cross the BBB, at what level would the blood pH need in order to lighten anesthesia? Deepen?

It would need to be above 7.4 to lighten. A high voice is light.
It would need to be below 7.4 to deepen. A low voice is deep.

25

What is the connection between greyhounds and thiobarbiturates?

They have prolonged, rough recoveries because they have a metabolic defect and lack of fat for redistribution. If pretreated for two weeks before hand, will wake up normally.

26

Which drug's metabolism is enhanced by phenobarbital?

Benzodiazepines

27

What are the effects of benzodizepines on the body?

Minimal cardiovascular and respiratory effects..generally very safe and sedative effects dependable on the young, old and debilitated.

28

What drug is used as an competitive antagonist to benzodiazepine?

Flumazenil

29

How do a2 adrenergic agonist drugs mediate sedation, anxiolysis, and analgesia in the patient?

For sedation and anxiolysis, the presynaptic auto receptors in the brain are bound by the drug resulting in a negative feedback inhibiting NE release to the CNS.

For analgesia, the non-noradrenergic heteroreceptors in the spinal cord and the postsynaptic auto receptors in the pons are bound by the drug.

30

Which drug is a muscle peripheral muscle relaxant that is used in ophthalmology?

Cisatracurium

31

How does cisatracurium work?

It binds to nicotinic receptors blocking Ach binding and allowing Ach to build up in the synapse..it is non-polarizing and prevents depolarization of the muscle cells.

32

What kind of drug is Guaifenesin and how does it work?

It is a central muscle relaxant that acts on internuncial neurons in the spinal cord to modulate tonic muscle activity.

33

What is "triple drip"?

1. Ketamine
2. Xylazine
3. Guaifenisen

Three drugs administered IV to large animals to modulate a smoother, faster induction.