Animal Physiology - Lecture 5 Flashcards Preview

Aps 136 Animal Physiology > Animal Physiology - Lecture 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Animal Physiology - Lecture 5 Deck (39)
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1
Q

Development is a series of progressive change in .. and .. during an organisms life cycle

A

form, function

2
Q

Most intense period of development is … -> …

A

fertilisation, maturity

3
Q

fertilisation is the formation of .. and .. to give zygote

A

egg, sperm

4
Q

cleavage is the division of cells to form the ..

A

blastula

- occurs after fertilisation

5
Q

gastrulation is the formation of … .. and .. ..

it’s where the blastula is transformed into a proper …

A

tissue layers, body axis
embryo
-can be oral or aboral dependant on speces

6
Q

organogenesis is the formation of ..

A

organs

7
Q

morphogenesis is the mechanism of .. shape formation

A

body

8
Q

the cytoplasm and mitochondria of a zygote comes from the ..

A

egg

-as sperm organelles degenerate by this time

9
Q

the nucleus of the egg is within the … hemisphere

A

animal

10
Q

nutrients within an egg accumulate in the .. hemisphere

A

vegetal

11
Q

in amphibians the vegetal hemisphere is …, while the animal hemisphere is .. and has a surface layer

A

unpigmented, opaque

12
Q

sperm enters a cell at the … hemisphere, causing the … to rotate and expose the ‘grey crescent’ opposite the site of fertilisation

A

animal, cortex (outer layer)

13
Q

proteins in the grey crescent control what .. cells will take

A

form

14
Q

blastomeres are produced during cell .. and are essential in … formation

when formed from a morulla the .. has a … in the middle

A

clevage, blastula

blastula, blastocoel

15
Q

in cleavage, cells divide yet the overall mass of cells .. change

A

doesn’t

16
Q

in complete clevage, the whole cel divides, without a yolk all cells are .. in size

however with a yolk, the yolk … the clevage and cells divide ..

A

equal

impedes, asymmetrically

17
Q

in incomplete discoidal clevage, lots of yolk .. the clevage furrows from penetrating the yolk

this causes a … to give rise to the embryo and its associated membranes, the yolk underneath provides .. for the growing envelope

A

prevents

blastodisc, nutrients
-discoidal incomplete clevage happens in birds

18
Q

Superficial incomplete clevage results as the nucleus divides but .. does not follow

chromosomes are split and form new .., which then imigrate to the edges of the cell and the plasma membrane then grows .. from the edges, partitioning the nuclei into individual cells

A

cytokinesis
nuclei
inwards

19
Q

in radial clevage, mitotic spindles form at right angles or parallel to …-… axis

A

animal, vegetal

20
Q

in spiral clevage mitotic spindles form at .. angles to the .. axis

A

oblique, vegetal

21
Q

in rotational clevage, the first division is … to vegetal-animal axis, the second division is at a .. angle and the third is at a .. angle to that

A

parallel

right,right

22
Q

totipotency refers to cells being .., at determination however these cells then become .. in roles

A

undifferentiated, fixed

23
Q

in gastrulation the blastula is separated into three tissue layers, the .., .. and …

A

endoderm, exoderm, mesoderm

24
Q

the endoderm is the innermost layer and produces the …, .. and .. tract

A

digestive, circulatory, respiratory

25
Q

the ectoderm forms the .. and … …

A

epidermis, nervous system

26
Q

protostomes mouth forms .. anus .., deuterostomes mouth forms .. and anus ..

A

first, second

second, first

27
Q

on a diagram for gastrluation, the centre of the structure is the …, which is surrounded by the …

however the red parts are the primary and secondary … (.. at bottom)

A

archenteron
endoderm
mesenchyme, primary

28
Q

gastrulation in birds starts when … node moves across the blastodisc anterior, to the posterior leaving behind a .. streak

A

Hensen’s, primitive

29
Q

the blastodisc comprises of the epiblast, which forms the … and the hypoblast which forms the .. .. ..

the … lies between the epiblast and the hypoblast

A

embryo
extra embryonic membranes
blastocoel

30
Q

in mammal gastrulation, the blastula divides to form the trophoblast (which forms the ..) and the … cell mass

A

placenta

inner

31
Q

in mammals, the inner cell mass forms the .. and the ..

A

epiblast, hypoblast

32
Q

organogenesis is the formation of .. and .. systems

A

organs, organ

33
Q

neurulation occurs in early organogenesis, it begins the formation of the … system of ..

A

nervous, vertebrates

34
Q

neurulation starts with the .. of the ectoderm, above the notochord, eventually resulting in a .. tube forming

A

thickening, neural

35
Q

the anterior end of the neural tube develops into a ..

A

brain

36
Q

somites produce the .., .. and .. of the trunk and limbs

A

vertebrates, rib, muscles

37
Q

embryos have extraembryonic mebmranes in their .. layer

A

germ

38
Q

in birds the yolk sac is the .. to form, by an extension of the ..

the ectoderm and mesoderm combine to form the .., which surrounds the embryo

the chorion is a continuous membrane just .. the egg cell

the allantois membrane is anoutgrowth of the embryonic .. and forms the ..

A

first, hypoblast
amnion
under
membrane, allantois

39
Q

the allantois is a sac that .. metabolic wastes

A

stores

-the umbilical chord in mammals