Flashcards in Animal Transport Systems Deck (64):
What transports substances to and from cells in humans and other animals?
What is required to release energy from food?
What are glucose and amino acids an example of?
What does blood transport from the endocrine glands?
What is the circulatory system made up of?
The heart and a vast network of blood vessels
What is the system called that transports blood to all parts of the body?
The circulatory system
What is the function of the heart?
To pump blood through the blood vessels
What is the special type of muscle that the walls of the heart are made from?
What are the two upper chambers of the heart called?
Atria (singular - atrium)
What are the two lower chambers of the heart called?
What do the atria do?
Receive blood which is returning to the heart
What do the ventricles do?
They receive blood from an atrium and pump it into an artery
What does the right hand side of the heart do?
It receives deoxygenated blood returning from the body and pumps it to the lung
What does the left hand side of the heart do?
It receives oxygenated blood returning from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body
What are structures that allow blood to pass through in one direction only, preventing the backflow of blood?
How many times does blood pass through the heart in each circulation?
What are the two main veins called that blood arrives in from all parts of the body?
Where does the pulmonary artery carry the blood to?
A blood vessel which carries blood away from the heart
A blood vessel which carries blood towards the heart
A microscopic blood vessel where exchange of substances occurs
Air sac in the lungs where gas exchange takes place
Tissue which forms rings to keep airways open
Sticky substance lining airways which traps dust and germs
Hair-like structures, lining the airways that move mucus away from the lungs
Pigment in red blood cells that transports oxygen as oxyhaemoglobin
Waves of muscular contraction which push food through the alimentary canal
Finger-like projections on the surface of the small intestine which provide a large surface area for absorption of food
Central vessel in a villus, which absorbs the products of fat digestion
What is required for carrying out respiration and releasing energy?
Glucose and oxygen
What are the vessels that supply the heart with blood?
What happens when the coronary arteries become blocked or narrowed?
The heart cells will be deprived of glucose and oxygen, the cells will die as a result and this may lead to a heart attack
Blood vessels that have thick muscular walls and narrow cavity to help withstand high pressure
Blood vessels with thin muscular walls for low pressure of blood and valves to prevent backflow
Blood vessels that are only one cell thick to allow exchange of materials
In what organ does gas exchange take place?
Why do the alveoli provide a large surface area?
For the absorption of a large volume of oxygen
Why do the alveoli have a moist surface?
It allows oxygen to dissolve, making diffusion faster
Why do the alveoli have an extremely thin lining?
It allows oxygen to pass through easily
Why is each alveolus surrounded by a network of capillaries?
It absorbs and transports oxygen to the heart
Why are capillaries highly branched?
It gives a large surface area for gas exchange
Why do capillaries form dense networks amongst the cells?
It means that it will be close to a cell
Why are capillaries only one cell thick?
It allows easy diffusion of gases
What is the main component of blood called?
Two types of cells that are suspended in the plasma
Red blood cells and white blood cells
What are some uses of proteins?
Enzymes, hormones and antibodies
What is the function of the red blood cells?
To absorb and transport oxygen
Why do red blood cells have a biconcave disc shape?
It increases their surface area, which makes them very efficient at absorbing oxygen
What gives blood it's red colour?
Why are red blood cells very small and flexible?
It allows them to squeeze through the narrowest of blood capillaries and deliver oxygen to nearby body cells
Why do red blood cells not contain a nucleus?
It leaves the maximum space for haemoglobin
What is the function of white blood cells?
To defend the body against infection
How are the structures of white blood cells different from red blood cells?
White blood cells are larger than red blood cells and contain a nucleus but no haemoglobin
Haemoglobin + oxygen ----> oxyhaemoglobin
Oxyhaemoglobin ----> haemoglobin + oxygen
in the lungs
Haemoglobin + oxygen oxyhaemoglobin in the body tissues
What are the main food groups?
Carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals
What are the chemical elements and molecular units of carbohydrate molecules?
Chemical elements - carbon, hydrogen + oxygen
Molecular units - simple sugar molecules
What are the chemical elements and molecular units of protein molecules?
Chemical elements - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
Molecular units - amino acid molecules
What are the chemical elements and molecular units of fat molecules?
Chemical elements - carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Molecular units - fatty acid molecules
What is the digestive system made up of?
Alimentary canal and organs such as the liver and pancreas
How do the circular muscles act behind the ball of food and in front of it?
Behind the ball of food, the muscles contract and the muscles in front relax
What are the three features of the small intestine to help absorb the molecules efficiently?
Large surface area, thin wall and vessels to receive the absorbed foods
What is the fluid called that is contained in the lacteal?
What do the lymph do?
It is transported in lymph vessels which eventually join the blood stream