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Flashcards in Animal Transport Systems Deck (64):
0

What transports substances to and from cells in humans and other animals?

Blood

1

What is required to release energy from food?

Oxygen

2

What are glucose and amino acids an example of?

Nutrients

3

What does blood transport from the endocrine glands?

Hormones

4

What is the circulatory system made up of?

The heart and a vast network of blood vessels

5

What is the system called that transports blood to all parts of the body?

The circulatory system

6

What is the function of the heart?

To pump blood through the blood vessels

7

What is the special type of muscle that the walls of the heart are made from?

Cardiac muscle

8

What are the two upper chambers of the heart called?

Atria (singular - atrium)

9

What are the two lower chambers of the heart called?

Ventricles

10

What do the atria do?

Receive blood which is returning to the heart

11

What do the ventricles do?

They receive blood from an atrium and pump it into an artery

12

What does the right hand side of the heart do?

It receives deoxygenated blood returning from the body and pumps it to the lung

13

What does the left hand side of the heart do?

It receives oxygenated blood returning from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body

14

What are structures that allow blood to pass through in one direction only, preventing the backflow of blood?

Valves

15

How many times does blood pass through the heart in each circulation?

Twice

16

What are the two main veins called that blood arrives in from all parts of the body?

Vena cava

17

Where does the pulmonary artery carry the blood to?

Lungs

18


A blood vessel which carries blood away from the heart

Artery

19

A blood vessel which carries blood towards the heart

Vein

20

A microscopic blood vessel where exchange of substances occurs

Capillary

21

Air sac in the lungs where gas exchange takes place

Alveolus

22

Tissue which forms rings to keep airways open

Cartilage

23

Sticky substance lining airways which traps dust and germs

Mucus

24

Hair-like structures, lining the airways that move mucus away from the lungs

Cilia

25

Pigment in red blood cells that transports oxygen as oxyhaemoglobin

Haemoglobin

26

Waves of muscular contraction which push food through the alimentary canal

Peristalsis

27

Finger-like projections on the surface of the small intestine which provide a large surface area for absorption of food

Villi

28

Central vessel in a villus, which absorbs the products of fat digestion

Lacteal

29

What is required for carrying out respiration and releasing energy?

Glucose and oxygen

30

What are the vessels that supply the heart with blood?

Coronary arteries

31

What happens when the coronary arteries become blocked or narrowed?

The heart cells will be deprived of glucose and oxygen, the cells will die as a result and this may lead to a heart attack

32

Blood vessels that have thick muscular walls and narrow cavity to help withstand high pressure

Arteries

33

Blood vessels with thin muscular walls for low pressure of blood and valves to prevent backflow

Veins

34

Blood vessels that are only one cell thick to allow exchange of materials

Capillaries

35

In what organ does gas exchange take place?

Lungs

36

Why do the alveoli provide a large surface area?

For the absorption of a large volume of oxygen

37

Why do the alveoli have a moist surface?

It allows oxygen to dissolve, making diffusion faster

38

Why do the alveoli have an extremely thin lining?

It allows oxygen to pass through easily

39

Why is each alveolus surrounded by a network of capillaries?

It absorbs and transports oxygen to the heart

40

Why are capillaries highly branched?

It gives a large surface area for gas exchange

41

Why do capillaries form dense networks amongst the cells?

It means that it will be close to a cell

42

Why are capillaries only one cell thick?

It allows easy diffusion of gases

43

What is the main component of blood called?

Plasma

44

Two types of cells that are suspended in the plasma

Red blood cells and white blood cells

45

What are some uses of proteins?

Enzymes, hormones and antibodies

46

What is the function of the red blood cells?

To absorb and transport oxygen

47

Why do red blood cells have a biconcave disc shape?

It increases their surface area, which makes them very efficient at absorbing oxygen

48

What gives blood it's red colour?

Haemoglobin

49

Why are red blood cells very small and flexible?

It allows them to squeeze through the narrowest of blood capillaries and deliver oxygen to nearby body cells

50

Why do red blood cells not contain a nucleus?

It leaves the maximum space for haemoglobin

51

What is the function of white blood cells?

To defend the body against infection

52

How are the structures of white blood cells different from red blood cells?

White blood cells are larger than red blood cells and contain a nucleus but no haemoglobin

53

Haemoglobin + oxygen ----> oxyhaemoglobin

Oxyhaemoglobin ----> haemoglobin + oxygen

in the lungs
Haemoglobin + oxygen oxyhaemoglobin in the body tissues

54

What are the main food groups?

Carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals

55

What are the chemical elements and molecular units of carbohydrate molecules?

Chemical elements - carbon, hydrogen + oxygen

Molecular units - simple sugar molecules

56

What are the chemical elements and molecular units of protein molecules?

Chemical elements - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen

Molecular units - amino acid molecules

57

What are the chemical elements and molecular units of fat molecules?

Chemical elements - carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

Molecular units - fatty acid molecules

58

What is the digestive system made up of?

Alimentary canal and organs such as the liver and pancreas

59

How do the circular muscles act behind the ball of food and in front of it?

Behind the ball of food, the muscles contract and the muscles in front relax

60

What are the three features of the small intestine to help absorb the molecules efficiently?

Large surface area, thin wall and vessels to receive the absorbed foods

61

What is the fluid called that is contained in the lacteal?

Lymph

62

What do the lymph do?

It is transported in lymph vessels which eventually join the blood stream

63

What are the products of fat digestion?

Glycerol and fatty acids