ANS Flashcards Preview

Pharm I Fall 2016 NUNM Jensen > ANS > Flashcards

Flashcards in ANS Deck (101)
Loading flashcards...
1

What does muscarinic stimulation in sphincter muscle of the iris of the eye cause?

Miosis

2

What does muscarinic stimulation in arterioles cause?

Vasodilation

3

What does muscarinic stimulation in heart cause?

Negative chronotropic and inotropic respnses

4

What does muscarinic stimulation in bronchial smooth muscle cause?

Bronchoconstriction

5

What does muscarinic stimulation in GI and GU systems cause?

Salivation
Lacrimation
Urination
Diarrhea

6

What kind of stimulation of the heart causes +inotropic and +chronotropic response?

Beta 1

7

What kind of stimulation of the bronchus causes bronchodilation?

Beta 2

8

What kind of stimulation of the myometrium causes relaxation?

Beta 2

9

What kind of stimulation of the pancreas causes insulin release?

Beta 2

10

What kind of stimulation of arterioles causes vasoconstriction?

Alpha 1

11

What kind of stimulation of radial muscles of the iris causes mydriasis?

Alpha 1

12

What kind of stimulation reduces norepinephrine release?

Alpha 2

13

What are the two types of parasympathomimetics?

Muscarinic agonists
Cholinesterase inhibitors

14

What is the one type of parasympatholytic?

Muscarinic antagonist

15

Acetylcholine: Category?

ANS - parasympathomimetic

16

Acetylcholine: MOA?

Muscarinic and nicotinic agonist

17

Acetylcholine: Distinguishing characteristics?

Rapidly hydrolyzed by esterases
Acts on musc. and nic. receptors
Quaternary ammonium group invokes polarity

18

Acetylcholine: Predictable characteristics?

Short half life (seconds)
Diffuse activity
Limited distribution

19

Acetylcholine: Predictable uses?

Local ophthalmic use (but better products available)

20

Bethanechol (Urecholine): Category?

ANS - parasympathomimetic

21

Bethanechol (Urecholine): MOA?

Muscarinic agonist

22

Bethanechol (Urecholine): Distinguishing characteristics?

Not metabolized by esterase enzymes
Quaternary ammonium compound
Particular affinity for gut and bladder smooth muscle
Oral route preferred

23

Bethanechol (Urecholine): Predictable characteristics?

No CNS effect
T1/2 allows dist. to areas of low blood flow

24

Bethanechol (Urecholine): Predictables uses?

Postoperative gastroparesis
Urinary retention
Xerostomia
Ocular diagnostics

25

Bethanechol (Urecholine): Predictable side effects?

Other parasympathomimetic effects especially following parenteral Rx

26

Neostigmine: Category?

ANS - Parasympathomimetic

27

Neostigmine: MOA?

Reversible cholinesterase inhibitor

28

Neostigmine: Distinctive characteristics?

Quaternary ammonium compound
Contains ester group- slowly hydrolyzed
Poorly absorbed following oral Rx

29

Neostigmine: Predictable activities?

Elevates Ach levels
Causes both muscarinic and nicotinic stimulation
Numerous peripheral side effects but not CNS

30

Neostigmine: Predictable uses?

Miosis and Rx glaucoma (local)
Rx myasthenia gravis
Antidote to some drugs (atropine)
Atonic gut and bladder

31

Malathione: Category?

ANS- Parasympathomimetic

32

Malathione: MOA?

Irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor

33

Malathione: Distinguishing characteristics?

Tertiary ammonium compound
Binds covalently to esterase enzymes
Not hydrolyzed by esterase enzymes
Rapidly absorbed through multiple routes

34

Malathione: Predictable characteristics?

Causes SLUD and other ANS activities
Causes CNS disturbances
No therapeutic use
Used as insecticide
Similar agent used as chemical weapons
Atropine is antidote plus supportive therapy

35

Atropine: Category?

ANS- parasympatholytic

36

Atropine: MOA?

Muscarinic receptor antagonist

37

Atropine: Distinguishing characteristics?

From plant source (atropa belladonna)
Tertiary ammonium compound
Ester group required for activity
Resistant to hydrolysis by esterases
Metabolized in liver with t1.2 of ~4hr

38

Atropine: Predictable activities?

CNS toxicity (especially kids)
Inhibit SLUD
Used in ophthalmology (mydriasis and cycloplegia)
Antidote to parasympathomimetics
Used to treat diarrhea

39

Ipratropium: Category?

Parasympatholytic

40

Ipratropium: MOA?

Muscarinic antagonist

41

Ipratropium: Distinguishing characteristics?

Quaternary ammonium compound
Minimal inhibition of mucociliary clearance

42

Ipratropium: Predictable actions?

No CNS effects
Bronchodilation
Limited mucous accumulation

43

Scopolamine: Category?

ANS- parasympatholytic

44

Scopolamine: MOA?

Muscarinic receptor antagonist

45

Scopolamine: Distinguishing characteristics?

From plant source (Hyocyamus niger)
Greater CNS distribution than atropine
Other char. similar to atropine

46

Scopolamine: Predictable actions?

Greater CNS side effects and abuse potential than atropine
Used less frequently than atropine
Used to treat motion sickness

47

Epinephrine: Category?

ANS- sympathomimetic

48

Epinephrine: MOA?

Stimulate alpha and beta receptors (G protein which facilitate 2nd messengers)

49

Epinephrine: Distinguishing characteristics?

Metabolized in gut, blood and multiple tissues
More beta and less alpha activity than norepinephrine

50

Epinephrine: Predictable uses?

Ineffective orally
Very short t1/2 (minutes)
Cardiac emergencies
Bronchospasms
Adjunct to local anesthesia

51

Epinephrine: Predictable side effects?

Tachycardia and increased force of contraction
BP disturbance (usually HTN)

52

Phenylephrine: Category?

ANS- Sympathomimetic

53

Phenylephrine: MOA?

Alpha 1 receptor agonist

54

Phenylephrine: Distinguishing characteristics?

Effective orally
Limited access to CNS

55

Phenylephrine: Uses?

Nasal decongestant
Mydratic

56

Phenylephrine: Side effects?

Rebound congestion
Increased peripheral resistance
Reflex bradycardia

57

Clonidine: Category?

ANS- sympathomimetic

58

Clonidine: MOA?

Alpha 2 receptor agonist

59

Clonidine: Distinguishing characteristics?

Effective orally
Crosses blood-brain barrier
Prefers alpha receptors in brainstem
Long t1/2 and duration of action
Diminish discharge from medular vasomotor center

60

Clonidine: Predictable uses?

Antihypertensive

61

Clonidine: Side effects?

Dry mouth
Sedation
Sexual dysfunction

62

Isoproterenol: Category?

ANS- sympathomimetic

63

Isoproterenol: MOA?

Beta receptor agonist (1 and 2)

64

Isoproterenol: Distinguishing characteristics?

Metabolized by COMT
Short duration of action
Both beta 1 and 2

65

Isoproterenol: Predictable uses?

Cardiac arrest

66

Isoproterenol: Predictable actions?

Tachycardia
Bronchodilation
Replaced often by more selective beta agonists

67

Albuterol: Category?

ANS- sympathomimetic

68

Albuterol: MOA?

Beta 2 receptor agonist

69

Albuterol: Distinguishing characteristics?

Effective orally or by inhalation
Limited cardiovascular effects
Duration of action is several hours

70

Albuterol: Predictable uses?

Bronchodilator

71

Albuterol: Side effects?

Weak and occasional tachycardia
Vasodilation

72

Amphetamine: Category?

ANS sympathomimetic

73

Amphetamine: MOA?

Stimulate release of norepinephrine and dopamine

74

Amphetamine: Dist. char.?

Enters CNS
Inhibits MAO

75

Amphetamine: Actions?

Alpha and beta stim by NorE (vasoconstriction, cardiac stim., increased BP, mydriasis)
CNS stim. (euphoria, insomnia, anxiety, loss of appetite, hyperthermia)
Used to treat narcolepsy, obesity and ADHD
High abuse potential makes it scheduled substance

76

Name some other substances that increase norepinephrine release?

Cocaine
Tyramine
Reserpine
Ephedrine
Pseudoephedrin
Methamphetamine

77

Phenelzine: Category?

ANS- sympathomimetic

78

Phenelzine: MOA?

Monoamine oxidase inhibitor

79

Phenelzine: Dist. Char.?

Readily absorbed
Crosses blood-brain barrier
Increases synaptic catecholamine levels

80

Phenelzine: Uses?

Antidepressant

81

Phenelzine: Side effects?

Sympathomimetic actions

82

Prazocin: Category?

ANS- sympatholytic

83

Prazocin: MOA?

Alpha 1 receptor antagonist

84

Prazocin: Dist. Char.?

Effective orally
Highly protein bound
Reflex tachycardia

85

Prazocin: Uses?

Hypertension

86

Prazocin: Side effects?

Hypotension
Syncope

87

Propranolol: Category?

ANS- sympatholytic

88

Propranolol: MOA?

Beta 1 and 2 receptor antagonist

89

Propranolol: Dist. Char.?

Very lipid soluble
1st pass metabolism
Highly variable plasma levels
Multiple uses

90

Propranolol: Uses?

Antihypertensive
Antiangina
Antiarrythmic

91

Propranolol: Side effects?

Place asthma patients at risk
Place diabetics at risk

92

Metoprolol: Category?

ANS- sympatholytic

93

Metoprolol: MOA?

Beta 1 receptor antagonist

94

Metoprolol: Dist. Char.?

Similar to propranolol

95

Metoprolol: Uses?

Antihypertensive w/o risk to asthmatics and diabetics

96

Metoprolol: Similar drugs?

Atenolol
Others

97

Reserpine: Category?

ANS- sympatholytic

98

Reserpine: MOA?

Promotes release of NorE and reduces reuptake resulting in depletion of NorE stores

99

Reserpine: Dist. Char.?

Derived from plant
Transitory sympathomimetic followed by prolonged sympatholytic effect
Antiquated for therapeutic use

100

Reserpine: Uses?

Antihypertensive

101

Reserpine: Side effects?

Prolonged paralysis of sympathetic nervous system