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Geography- Global Systems and Governance > Antarctica > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antarctica Deck (63):

Antarctica is the driest continent because...

Its' annual precipitation is 50mm- polar desert


Antarctica is the windiest continent because...

Smooth Antarctic surface allows for fast winds not slowed by surface friction


Antarctica is the coldest continent because...

Average temperature is -49oc (feels colder due to wind chill)



Opposite of accumulation
Processes that remove snow, ice, and water from a glacier or snowfield
(i.e. evaporation, melting of snow, ice running off a glacier, removal of snow by wind)



An exposed, often rock element of ridge, mountain or peak not covered with ice or snow within (or at the edge of) an ice field or glacier


Antarctic Convergence Zone

A natural boundary separating 2 distinct hydrological regions, areas of distinct climate, areas of distinct wildlife


Why does the Antarctic Convergence Zone vary seasonally?

Due to the expansion and contraction of sea ice


Thermohaline Circulation

Salt water moving along gradients creates the global thermohaline circulation
Water moves from hot to cold (convection)
Changes in salinity accelerate these changes


2 main factors that have increased the threat Antarctica faces

Technology- we can now get there
Greater demand for resources- exploiting Antarctica is now economically viable


What are the 4 main threats Antarctica faces?

Climate Change
Fishing and Whaling
Mineral Exploitation
Tourism and Scientific Research


Climate Change: Which parts of Antarctica are cooling?
Which parts aren't?

East cooling- not near the coastal parts (ocean a radiator)
West melting- likely the East will grow as the West melts


Climate Change: What is the melting of the Antarctic Peninsula causing?

Positive dieback- loss of ice shelves has caused ice to speed up in land


Climate Change: How many tonnes of ice have been lost each year since 1993?
By how much have global sea levels increased as a result?

100 billion tonnes each year
Increased global sea levels by 0.2mm a year


Climate Change: What will partly offset the increase in the rate of ice melt?

Increased snow fall


Climate Change: By how much has Southern Ocean temperatures increased since 1995?



Climate Change: What impacts has the Southern Ocean warming more quickly that the oceans globally had?

Changed distribution of penguin colonies
Krill populations fallen by up to 80% in last 40 years
Melting snow = increased plant colonisation
Ocean acidification


Climate Change: Although the melting of ice shelves doesn't contribute to sea level rise, how do they cause it?

Rate of flow of glaciers behind the ice shelves increases
These glaciers melt = sea level rise


Climate Change: Why might sea ice be expanding on the eastern side of Antarctica?

More snow and rain layering Southern Ocean with a cooler, denser top
More storms = local waters less salty, raises temp. of ice formation
Melting of continental land ice = icebergs- contributes to sea ice formation


Climate Change: What is the problem with the carbonic acid that would be created with increased atmospheric carbon dioxide?

Oceans would become a little more acidic
Could potentially corrode unprotected shells and skeletons- problems with food chain


Climate Change: Why would some argue global trade/ globalisation was responsible for climate change?

Global trade has increased movement of goods- increased fossil fuel consumption
(Antarctica doesn't benefit from this trade at all, it is instead impacted by the pollution and waste generated from the trade)


Fishing and Whaling: Why are krill so heavily fished around Antarctica?

Fishing restrictions implemented in Northern Hemisphere
2007, catch allowance increased by nearly 600%


Fishing and Whaling: Problems with over fishing of krill?

Impacts food chain
Increases phytoplankton


Fishing and Whaling: When did whaling begin in this area?



Fishing and Whaling: Where was the whale processing station located?

South Georgia


Fishing and Whaling: When was commercial whaling banned?



Mineral Exploitation: Where is there a large amount of coal?

On the coast and in the mountains


Mineral Exploitation: How many barrels of oil do the Ross and Weddell Seas combined hold?

50 billion barrels of oil


Mineral Exploitation: Demand for minerals could cause global ____ in the future

Many countries already put in claims as safeguard measures


Tourism and Scientific Research: How many permanent scientific bases are there?

Means resources have to be flown or shipped in


Tourism and Scientific Research: What happened with the Argentine navy transport ship in the late 20th century?

It ran aground
Released 250,000 gallons of fuel
Sea birds and krill were killed
(This was a relatively contained oil spill)


Tourism and Scientific Research: What disturbs bird populations?
What will worsen this?

Will be worsened if Australia opened their runway for tourism


Tourism and Scientific Research: What are the risks posed from tourism?

Contamination and spread of disease
Due to tourist numbers increasing, and little management (as not owned by one nation)


Tourism and Scientific Research: What's a positive of tourism?

Some profits from cruises donated to NGO's
Helps protect Antarctica in the future


When was the Antarctic Treaty signed, and enforced from?

1959, enforced from 1961


Key points from Antarctica Treaty articles

Sustainable management of Antarctica's ecosystems
Regarded as most successful piece of legislation


What is the Antarctic Treaty System?

A combination of the Antarctic Treaty and other related systems
They hold annual meetings


IWC: What caused the issue of whaling to be first publicly broadcast?
How did the public respond?

Greenpeace protesters confronting whaling fleets on the high seas
Demand for whale began to rapidly reduce


IWC: What is the purpose of the International Whaling Commission?

Intergovernmental Organisation
Regulates whaling, ensures whale populations are at sustainable levels
Imposed Global Whaling Moratorium


IWC: When was the global whaling moratorium imposed?
When are whales still allowed to be killed?

For scientific purposes


IWC: Advantages of the moratorium?

Everyone in whaling industry lost out equally- no bias
Whale populations have been able to recover
Easy to spot someone whaling
Raises awareness


IWC: Disadvantages of the moratorium?

Hard to monitor the whole of the Southern Ocean
Some argue that everyone has the right to use Antarctica as it is a global common
Greenpeace argues poorly enforced


IWC: Problems of Japan's abuse of the system

Other nations may follow
Around 300 whales killed each year


IWC: When was the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary established?



IWC: Why was the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary established?

Provide whales with a refuge from whaling
Allows species to recover from serious overexploitation


IWC: Long term aims of the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary

Develop non-lethal research
Provide economic benefits i.e. whale watching
Increase public awareness of the vulnerability of marine ecosystems
Allow whale populations to recover by protecting their feeding and breeding grounds


IWC: Successes of the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary

Covers most of the Southern Ocean
Non-lethal research means less whales need to be killed in the future
Raises public awareness
Protects feeding and breeding grounds
Finds other economic uses for whales- gives ex-whalers a job


IWC: Failures of the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary

Hasn't stopped Japan as doesn't protect against scientific whaling
Doesn't protect whales outside the protection area
Difficult to monitor such a large area
Only protects areas that are important now which may change with climate change, leaving whales unprotected


Why have NGO's like SCAR and ASOC been set up?

Do the work governments can't/ won't do
Don't have an agenda


Purpose of Scientific Committee on Antarctica Research

In charge of initiation, promotion, and co-ordination of research on Antarctica
Provide independent scientific advice to inform the Antarctic Treaty System


ASOC: Why was the Antarctica and Southern Ocean Coalition set up?
When was it set up?

Created so NGO's could have a greater influence on governments at the world stage


ASOC: Examples of NGOs involved

Over 30, including:
Friends of the Earth


ASOC: What does their work mainly focus on?

Environmental protection
Monitors environmental change
Ensures legislation is being kept to


ASOC: What 3 main campaigns is it currently focusing on?

Sustainable management of Southern Ocean Fisheries
Establishing a network of marine reserves, including Marine Protected Area status for the Ross Sea
Negotiating a legally binding Polar Code covering all vessels operating in the Southern Ocean


ASOC: Successes

Only NGO working full time to preserve Antarctica and the Southern Ocean
Powerful as it consists of over 30 NGOs
Helps raise public awareness about threats to Antarctica and encourages government involvement


ASOC: Failures

Difficult to monitor the whole of the large area they protect
Work on a lot of projects- don't focus all of their energy in one place


ASOC: Why are they so interested in protecting the Ross Sea?

Important for the diverse ecosystem present
50% of Ross Sea killer whales


What percentage of freshwater does Antarctica store?



What are some of the 'rules' of the Antarctic Treaty?

Only peaceful reasons- no army bases/ weapons
Cooperation on scientific research- avoids unnecessary scientific research
Should remain as a global commons- countries cannot make individual claims
Doesn't apply to seas... overexploitation likely


Which organisations make up the Antarctic Treaty System?

International Whaling Commission
United Nations Environment Programme


United Nations Environment Programme Key Points

Reports activity in Antarctica to UN
Aims to stop illegal fishing and converse ecosystem- protected areas
Limited by countries i.e. Russia


Piece of legislation protecting Minerals

1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctica Treaty


1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctica Treaty key points

Banned all mining
Rules on....
Regulating waste disposal
Preventing pollution
Protecting plants and animals- environmental impact assessment required before new activities conducted


Why is it difficult to prevent the damage caused?

Most damage not caused in Antarctica
i.e. Pollution or ghg's