Antarctica(lecture 24) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antarctica(lecture 24) Deck (17):
1

Antarctica

-large system with profound influence on the rest of the world
-want to see below the ice
-exciting in terms of science
- a lot of communication
-14 million km 2 (1.8x size of Australia)
-low energy input from the sun
-constrains what can live there

2

Antarctica treaty

-international agreement
-only conservation and scientific research can be done

3

3 bases in Australia

-Mawson station
-Davis station
-Casey station
-Australia has large claim of territory
-Macquarie Island-National Park in Tasmania

4

Challenging studying in Australia

-remote and extreme weather
-use fossil fuels for stations
-need electricians, diesel mechanics, doctors alongside the researchers
-live humbly
-live in apples for a couple of months on top of each other
-psychological testing to make sure you will not lose it in Antartica

5

Antarctica transportation

-no air bases
-travel with ships
-more and more tourist ships stuck in ice
-get around helicopter that you bring with you on the ship
-multiple helicopter trips to move gear from ship to base

6

Getting around Antarctica

-use snow mobiles and 4 wheels
-use skies when getting close to base
-use to use dogs to get around
-now sue quad bikes

7

Impacts of the environment on the animals

-cold (-49 degrees celcius) + wind chill
-high-mean sheet depth:2 km; mean elevation 2300m
-closed system due to Antarctic convergence (water just circulates in a circle)
-very dry due to water being locked up in ice
(animals need water)
-shortage of rocks for animals to nest on
-nest closer to the coast on rocks (decline in seabirds due to leftover waste -predators would eat the rubbish and prey on smaller birds)

8

vertebrates

-not strictly terrestrial invertebrates in Antarctica

-fish can survive the cold water

-temp means that there is no food for amphibians and reptiles

-very low energy, biomass, and invertebrates

9

birds

-a lot of them
-43 species
-all sea birds
-rely on n the ocean for food
-simple food chain
-skuas: key predatory/scavnger on land
-eats smaller birds, chicks, and eggs

10

mammals

-all marine
-rely on the sea for food
-19 species
-whales and seals are the only mammals
-7 seal species
-leopard seal top order predator
-important part of the ecosystem
-carnivore teeth
-fierce predator
-12 whale species

11

whales

orcas
-toothless whales
-top order predator
-eat seals and penguins
-change hunting strategy depending on where they are
-flip tail which causes?
-incredible communication and coordination
-very intelligent
-baleen
-humpback and blue whale
-feed on krill

12

food base

-zooplankton (krill)
-cephalopods
-fish

13

krill

-underspends the food chain in Antarctica
-patchy, but where it is it is abundant
-harvested in the southern ocean

14

seals

-eat cephalopods, fish, and krill

15

subantartic

-heard island
-big ben-largest Australian mountain, but long
-active volcano
-a lot of animals on it
-feed on the ocean
-7 species of seals
-34 sea birds

16

Macquarine Island

-locayed in the sub-antarctic
-long and narrow
-formed by two oceanic plates rubbing together
-long history of disturbance
-knock down fur seal, elephant seal, and
-outside of the convergence
-very wet and windy
-1 to 9 degrees celsius
-not to bad
-steep coastal slope
-rabbits were exploding
-rapid control mechanism using cats and dogs
-freshwater lakes on plateaus, but no fish because they cannot colonize the island

17

Fur seal

-pale face
-main point:sexual dimorphism
-seals
female:40 kilo
male: