Aussie Reptiles (lecture 4) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Aussie Reptiles (lecture 4) Deck (27):
1

taxonomics

"who is who"
-reptiles second most diverse after birds

2

4 orders of reptiles

-crocodiles
-turtles
-squamates (snakes and lizards)
-tuataras

3

squamates

-shows the greatest diversity among reptile species
-lizard diversity is in climate in Australia
-major representation of Australian fauna

4

phylogenetics def:

-is the study of evolutionary relatedness among groups of organisms

-diversification and where you end up with like minded species

5

phylogenetics

-a tree

-the further you go along the x axis show the relatedness
-y axis this that are closer together have similar evolutionary time

6

ancestral trait

-share traits with common ancestor

7

derived trait

-singular present trait that differentiate species

8

monophyletic

-single origin
-all mammals are

9

polyph

-multiple ancestral origin leading to present day form
-reptiles

10

phylogeny

-used physical traits to determine relationship between species

-changes over time

-as the system of relationship has evolved so has the phylogeny

-help understand the major evolutionary trajectory

11

crocodiles

-2 species of crocodiles
-salt and freshwater
-haven't change very much
-independent of dinosaurs
-heavily armoured body, long jaws, streamlined body, long tail
-aquatic predators
-pantropical distribution except in Africa
-most crocodiles have returned to the aquatic environment and have become smaller over the yrs.

12

crocodilus johnstoni(freshwater)

-live in the inland rivers and coast of queensland

-very shy

-inquisitive animals

13

crocodylus porosus (saltwater)

-extensively harvested in the 60s and 70s

-protected through legislation

-moved further and further inland to freshwater waterholes

-more than 5m long

-sit and wait predators

-people taken in the northern territory

-over 1k kg

-stash food in underground meat larva in water until hungry

-restricted to estuarine

14

turtles

-Australia has freshwater turtles
-have aquatic webbing for propulsion
-24 species of longneck turtle (chelida)
-prized food in Northern Australia

15

family carettochelydidae

-pitted shell turtle
-endemic to certain rivers in the Northern territory and New Guinea
-quite aquatic with nostrils

16

family chelida

-side-necked turtles
-produce stink secretion
-Gondwanan
-7 genera
-24+ species

17

family cheloniidae

-hard shell turtle
ex.
logggerhead turtle
green turtle
hawksbill turtle
pacific ridley
flatback turtle

18

family dermochelyidae

-leather back turtle
-1 genus/species
-in much cooler water
-exchange muscle for increase in body heat
-range distribution is a big larger than other turtles

19

lizards

-over 600 species, more than any other country in the world
-endemic radiation
-4 species
1. geckos
2. skinks
3. dragons
4. goannas


20

Geckos

-things that run up the wall and make funny noises
-major group (20 genera, over 150 species)
-almost exclusively nocturnal
-15% of total reptile diversity
-exploits dropping tail (tailatonomy) through fracture planes in vertebrates
-store fat and water in tails
-squeak for communication (alarm calls and signaling territory)
-have sticky feet-heads of feet enables adhesion
-4 major families

21

Skinks

-most diverse group
-make up 25-30% of lizard diversity
-most common genus and family
-365 species in Australia, 35 genera
-Vi
-live in the substrate they acquire
-major role on soil turnover and leaflet breakdown
-feed in small insects
-vary in color
-similar mythology
-blue-tongue is a defense mechanism to confuse predators
-high diversity or variation of skinks in Australian desert
-various level of limb reduction to get through the sand
-front legs then hinf

22

Dragons

-recent invasion
-common in Africa and southeast asia
-enter Australia 30 mya
-not specio
-65 specie
-fast moving and sun loving
-incredibly complex social display
-complex in communication

23

Goannas

-70 or 80 species
-3rd major group
corruption of the ord iguana
-recent to Australia (30 mya)
-1 genius/27 species
-most energetic reptiles
-related to the Komodo dragon
-high metabolic rate
-very active predators
-arboreal
-very diverse
-located in forest and on rock s
-very prolific predators, very active
-all related to giant lizard
-most diverse predator

24

Goanas and Snakes

forked tongue-incredible sensory organ
ritualize male combat
-establish dominance
-dominant creature pretends to scratch the back of the inferior creature
-classic ex. of convergence evolution

25

convergence evolution

-animals evolve with similar traits but come from different ancestors

26

snakes

-nonvenomous second most diverse
-single common ancestor
-extremely divers
-many family of snale
-python diversity occurs with the climate
-very large
-focus on vertebrate prey
-use infrared to capture prey

27

Elapidae

-very poisonous
-80 species, 20 genera
-recent radiation
-radiates in all habitats in Australia
-rich in desert
-extremely diverse group in Australia
-prey on invertebrates
-front-fanged venomous snakes