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Flashcards in Frogs (lecture 9) Deck (23):
1

heretology

-the study or seeking explanation of reptiles and amphibians or creepy things

2

three orders of amphibians

anura
urodela
gymnophiona

3

urodela

-visible tail
-salamanders
-northern hemisphere in origin
Axoloti-only animal you can get in Australia legally
-smooth newt
-European species
-can be bought in pet stores
-member of order in Australia

4

anura

-no tail
-only order that occur naturally in Australia
-shorter skin, more terrestrial
-no native species of toads in Australia
-only have frogs
-located worldwide
-single specie in Australia (cane toad)
-used to maintain agricultural pest

5

gymnophiona

-caecilians(legless)
-naked snakes (don't have scales)
-live underground
-prevalent in South America
-no little about it
-live in tropical areas

6

frog life cycle

occupy two ecological niches
-land and water

in water
-are eggs for a few days to weeks

-as tadpoles eat phytoplankton and algae
-last 10 days to 2 yrs

on land
-metamorph into little tail frog
-nonfeeding for 3-10 days

-frog
-survival age is much greater(10-85%)
-carnivorous adult

7

frogs

-can lay up to 40,000 eggs in the summer
-eggs stay in water and start to divide
-only tadpoles are glossy black

only sabdi don't go through tadpole stage
-exception to traditional frogs

8

biology and diversity of Australian amphibians

-soft, moist permeable skin
-stay out to long will die
-cannot absorb heat from the sun
-sunshine protects them from fungal infections
-adults are often nocturnally active
-ectotherms-do best in warm environments

9

diversity of Australian frogs

-hot and humid
-higher diversity in area with high rainfall and humidity

10

endemism

-region where only certain species occur
-follow richness patterns
-tropics
-tolerate arid conditions through episodic rainfall

11

order:Anura

-23 families globally
-4 native to Australia
-2 different distributions
-been there for a long time so was able to diversify
-newer arrivals less distributed
-less prevalent in the north but a lot of endemism in the north

12

4 native Anura families

myobatrachidae
hylidae
microhylidae
ranidae

13

myobatrachidae

-sourthern frogs
-Gondwanan origin
-quite diverse
-112 species
-20 genera
-metatarsal tubercules allows them to borrow
-found only in Australia
-wide range of morphological, ecological, and development, and developmental specialisations

ex.
corroboree frog
-quite endangered
-climate change and fungus tend to pose the problem

barred from
-stream barriers

turtle frog
-bury eggs underground

sunset frog
-endangered

14

hylidae

-tree frog
-worldwide distribution
-most in Australia and South America
-vary quite considerably
-73 species
- 3 genera
-located in Northern Australia
-not many in arid region
-wide range of morphological and ecological specialisations

ex.
green tree frog
-found all over the place

brown tree frog

growling grass frog
-under concern

15

hylidae genius

litoria
cyclorana
microhylidae
coph

16

litoria

largest hylidae in the world

17

cyclorana

-some are burrowing
-located in arid regions

18

nyctimystes dayi

-New Guniea group
-vertical pupil
-laced lower eyelid
-located in wet tropics

19

microhylidae

-2 genera of the 67 genera in Australia
-egg laid in terrestrial nest
-males babysit the eggs
-endemism is very high
-very diverse in South America, Africa, and southeast Asia

20

cophixalus

-in Queensland
-very little is known
-occur at higher elevation
-bypass tadpole stage
-going to have to shift upward to cooler region as climate change occurs

21

ranidae

-true frog
-common everywhere
-widespread in the northern hemisphere
-found in eastern northern territroy
-1 Australian specie
-wood frog
-distinct dorsal lateral fold
-paired vocal sacs(different to the singular one in all other frogs)

22

amphibian

-means double life

23

amplexus

describes the sexual clasping of amphibians preceeding egg laying and fertilization