Anterior and Medial Thigh Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anterior and Medial Thigh Deck (41):
1

What does the external iliac artery become, and what does it become after that? What does that artery branch into?

External iliac artery -> femoral artery -> popliteal artery

branches into anterior and posterior tibial artery

2

Where does the great saphenous vein ascend? Where does the small saphenous vein ascend?**

The great saphenous vein ascends anterior to the medial malleolus
The small saphenous vein ascends posterior to the lateral malleolus

3

Which side of the thigh does the saphenous vein pass? What vein does it pass into?

Passes up the medial side of the thigh
Emites into femoral vein after entering the saphenous opening of the fascia lata

4

What are varicose veins? How does blood continue to pass upwards in this case?

Varicose veins are those with incompetent valves
Blood still goes up due to perforating veins that the saphenous vein communicates to the deep veins through

5

What vein does the small saphenous vein drain into behind the knee?*

Popliteal vein

6

How do the small saphenous and great saphenous veins communicate with the deep veins?

Via the perforating veins

7

Describe the 2 groups of lymph nodes with respect to the fascia lata.

Superficial nodes lie above the fascia lata
Deep nodes lie along medial side of femoral vein deep to fascia lata

8

Where do the superficial inguinal nodes receive lymph from?

-Anterior and posterior surfaces of trunk below umbilicus
-perineum including lower half of anal canal, vagina, and all external genitalia (except testes! which drain into lumbar nodes)
-Superficial lymph vessels of lower limbs

9

Which lymph nodes do the ovaries and testes drain into?

Lumbar nodes (para-aortic nodes

10

Where do the deep inguinal nodes receive lymph from?

-receive lymph from superficial nodes
-from deep structures of lower limb

11

What do the efferent vessels from deep inguinal nodes drain into?

Drain into the external iliac nodes

12

What side of the thigh is the fascia lata thickened, and what does it form?

Fascia lata is thickened on the lateral aspect to form the iliotibial tract (or IT band)
runs from iliac tubercle to lateral condyle of tibia

13

What insertions do the iliotibial tract receive?

isertions from the tensor fascia latae and greater part of gluteus maximus

14

What are the 3 muscular compartments formed by the fascia lata?

Anterior
Medial
Posterior

15

What creates the saphenous opening, and what does it transmit?

Is a gap in deep fascia (fascia lata) in anterior thigh
transmits great saphenous vein and lymph vessels

16

What are the 5 muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh? What is the nerve and blood supply?**

Sartorius
Ilacus
Psoas major
Quadriceps femoris
Pectineus

Supplied by femoral nerve and femoral artery

17

What compartment in the thigh is the sartorius muscle, what is its nerve supply, and what is its action?

In the anterior compartment of the thigh
supplied by femoral nerve
Flexes and laterally rotates the femur at hip joint
-flexes and medially rotates leg at knee joint (creates tailor's position hence muscle name of 'tailor's muscle')

18

What are the 4 quadriceps femoris muscles? What are they all supplied by, and what is their group action?

1. rectus femoris
2. vastus medialis
3. vastus lateralis
4. vastus intermedius
all supplied by femoral nerve
group action is to extend leg at knee joint. they are all important supports for the knee joint
-rectus femoris also flexes femur at hip joint

19

What helps to form and strengthen the capsule of the knee joint?

The patellar retinacula
these are expansions of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis portions of the quadriceps tendon

20

What do the iliacus and psoas form, where do they combine, what is the nerve supply for each, and what is their group function?

Iliacus and psoas form the iliopsoas, which meet in a common tendon on the lesser trochanter of the femur
psoas is supplied by ventral rami L2-L4
iliacus is supplied by femoral nerve (note L2-L4 ventral rami become femoral nerve)
together is the chief flexor of the femur at the hip joint, flexes the vertebral column when sitting up from supine position, stabilizes column in sitting position

21

What compartment of the thigh is the pectineus in what is its nerve supply, and what is its action?

pectineus is in the anterior compartment of the thigh
supplied by the femoral nerve (sometimes receives branch of obturator nerve which is the nerve of adductors)
flexes and adducts femur at hip joint

22

What muscles are contained in the medial compartment of the thigh? What is their nerve and blood supply?

Gracilus
Adductor longus
Adductor brevis
Adductor magus
Obturator externus

supplied by profunda femoris artery and obturator artery
nerve supply is the obturator nerve

23

What compartment of the thigh is the gracilus, what is its nerve supply, and what is its action?

In the medial compartment
supplied by obturator nerve
adducts the femur at the hip joint, flexes leg at knee joint

24

What compartment of the thigh is the adductor longus, what is its nerve supply, and what is its action?

In the medial compartment
supplied by obturator nerve
adducts and flexes the femur at hip joint

25

What compartment of the thigh is the adductor brevis, what is its nerve supply, and what is its action?

medial compartment
supplied by obturator nerve
adducts and flexes femur at hip joint

26

What compartment of the thigh is the adductor magnus, what are the 2 portions**, what is each portion supplied by, and what are each of the actions?**

Medial compartment
-has an adductor portion and a hamstring portion
-adductor is supplied by obturator nerve
-hamstring is supplied by tibial division of sciatic nerve
-adductor adducts and flexes femur at hip joint
-hamstring extends the femur at the hip joint
=note that all hamstring parts have an attachment to the ischial tuberosity

27

What compartment is the obturator externus in, what is its nerve supply, and what is its action?

In the medial compartment
supplied by obturator nerve
laterally rotates the femur at the hip joint

28

What are the contents of the femoral triangle, what lateral to medial?

Femoral nerve
Femoral sheath
Deep inguinal lymph nodes (are in the femoral sheath)

29

What is enclosed in the femoral sheath? What are the 3 compartments of the femoral sheath created by septa?

Femoral vessels and lymphatics are contained below the inguinal canal
The most lateral compartment holds the femoral artery
Middle holds the femoral vein
most medial compartment holds the femoral canal

30

What is enclosed in the femoral canal?

Fat
All efferent vessels from deep inguinal lymph nodes
One deep inguinal lymph node

31

Where is a femoral hernia? What about an inguinal hernia?

-it is a protrusion of abdominal contents through the femoral canal
-Inguinal hernia is above the pubic tubercle, while a femoral hernia is below and lateral to the pubic tubercle
-The sac of femoral hernia passes out femoral canal below inguinal ligament onto the thigh

32

Where is the adductor canal, and what is contained in it?

Adductor canal begins at apex of femoral triangle and ends at the adductor hiatus. is deep to sartorius muscle
Contains:
-the femoral vessels
-saphenous nerve (terminal branch of femoral nerve)
-nerve to vastus medialis

33

What does the adductor canal end as, and where do its contents go from there? What name change happens there?

Adductor canal ends at the adductor hiatus
Vessels pass through the hiatus into the popliteal fossa behind knee
femoral vessels are now called popliteal vessels

34

What ventral rami is the femoral nerve derived from, and how does it enter the thigh?

Derived from ventral rami of L2, L3, and L4
Passes deep to the inguinal ligament and ***lateral to the femoral sheath (so the femoral nerve is not contained in femoral sheath)

35

What is the terminal branch of the femoral nerve?

Saphenous nerve is the terminal branch of femoral nerve

36

What ventral rami is the obturator nerve derived from, and behind what muscle does the obturator nerve emerge into the thigh?

Derived from L2, L3, and L4
Both the anterior and posterior branches emerge into thigh behind the pectineus muscle and in front of or through the obturator externus

37

Behind what does the femoral artery enter the thigh?

Enters thigh behind the inguinal ligament as a direct continuation of the external iliac artery

38

What does the femoral artery lie between once it enters the thigh?

Lies midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the symphysis pubis

39

What artery does the femoral artery give off within the femoral triangle?

Gives off the deep femoral artery (profunda femoris)

40

What is the profunda femoris a branch of, and what are its 3 main branches?

Profunda femoris is a branch of the femoral artery
gives off:
-lateral circumflex femoral artery
-medial circumflex femoral artery
-four perforating arteries which supply hamstring

41

What do the perforating arteries of the profunda femoris supply?

Enter the posterior compartment of the thigh and are the chief blood supply to this compartment
-note: 4th perforating artery is a direct continuation of the profunda femoris