Joints of the Lower Limb Flashcards Preview

Medical Anatomy > Joints of the Lower Limb > Flashcards

Flashcards in Joints of the Lower Limb Deck (32):
1

What are the 4 main ligaments of the hip joint?

-Iliofemoral ligament
-ischiofemoral ligament
-pubfemoral
-ligament of the head of the femur

2

What ligament of the hip joint is the strongest, and which is the weakest?

iliofemoral ligament is strongest
ischiofemoral is weakest

3

What muscles are involved in flexion of the hip joint?

iliopsoas
rectus femoris
sartorius
(all part of anterior compartment of thigh)

4

What muscles are involved in extension of the hip joint?

gluteus maximus
hamstring muscles

5

What muscles are involved in abduction of the hip joint?

gluteus medius
gluteus minimus
satorius
tensor fasciae latae

6

What muscles are involved in adduction of the hip joint?

adductor longus
adductor brevis
adductor magnus
gracilus
pectineus

7

What muscles are involved in lateral rotation of the hip joint?

piriformis
obturator internus and externus
superior and inferior gemelli
quadratus femoris
gluteus maximus

8

What muscles are involved in medial rotation of the hip joint?

gluteus medius
gluteus minimus
tensor fasciae latae

9

What fails to develop in congenital dislocation of hip joint?

The acetabulum fails to develop

10

What does the knee joint articulate with?

condyles of the femur and tibia

11

What are the extracapsular ligaments?

Patellar ligament
tibial collateral ligament (medial collateral)
fibular collateral ligament (lateral collateral)
oblique popliteal ligament
arcuate popliteal ligament

12

What tendon separates the fibular (lateral) collateral ligament from the lateral meniscus? What is the tibial (medial) firmly attached to?

The popliteus tendon separates the fibular collateral ligament from the lateral meniscus
The tibial collateral (medial collateral) is firmly attached to the medial meniscus

13

What is the chief function of the menisci of the knee joint?

maintain congruence of the tibial and femoral condyles throughout range of movement

14

What is the anterior cruciate ligament attached to, in what direction does it move upward, and what does it attach to there?

Attached to the posterior intercondylar tibia, passes upward and laterally to the posterior part of the lateral femoral condyle

15

What is the posterior cruciate ligament attached to, in what direction does it move upward, and what does it attach to there?

Attached to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia, passes upward and medially to attach to anterior part of medial femoral condyle

16

When leg is extended: What cruciate ligament prevents posterior displacement of the femur on the tibia? What prevents anterior displacement?
When leg is fixed: what prevents anterior displacement of tibia and what prevents posterior displacement of tibia?

Extended leg: ACL prevents posterior displacement of femur on tibia
Extended leg: PCL prevents anterior displacement of femur on tibia

Fixed leg: ACL prevents anterior displacement of tibia
Fixed leg: PCL prevents posterior displacement on tibia

17

What is the screwing home movement of the knee joint?

Medial rotation of the femur at the end of extension of the leg
-causes all ligaments in knee to become a rigid structure

18

What muscle accomplishes the unlocking of the knee joint in order to flex the leg when the knee is locked?

Popliteus muscle unlocks the knee joint
-either by laterally rotating the femur or medially rotating the tibia

19

What are the muscles involved in flexion of the knee joint?

Biceps femoris
semitendinosus
semimembranosus
gracilis
sartorius
popliteus

20

What are the muscles involved in extension of the knee joint?

quadriceps femoris

21

What are the muscles involved in medial rotation of the knee joint?

sartorius
gracilus
semitendinosus
semimembranosus

22

What are the muscles involved in lateral rotation of the knee joint?

biceps femoris

23

When the ACL is torn, what does the patient present with?
When the PCL is torn, what does the patient present with?

ACL tearing means the tibia can be pulled excessively forward (anterior drawer sign)
PCL tearing means the tibia can be pulled excessively backward (posterior drawer sign)

24

What about the medial meniscus makes it more vulnerable to damage?

closely associated with the tibial collateral ligament (medial collateral ligament)

often occurs with ACL injury

25

What is the unhappy triad of knee injuries?

1. tearing of tibial collateral ligament (medial collateral)
2. tearing of medial meniscus
3. tearing of anterior cruciate ligament

26

What are the ligaments of the ankle joint?

Medial (deltoid) ligament (stronger)
lateral ligament (weaker)

27

What muscles are involved in dorsiflexion of the ankle joint?

tibialis anterior
extensor hallucis longus
extensor digitorum longus
fibularis tertius

28

What muscles are involved in plantar flexion of the ankle joint?

gastrocnemius
soleus
plantaris
fibularis longus
fibularis brevis
tibialis posterior
flexor digitorum longus
flexor hallucis longus

29

What ligament is usually torn with an ankle sprain?

anterior talofibular ligament

30

What are the main joints responsible for eversion and inversion of the foot?**

transverse tarsal joint
subtalar joint

31

What are the 3 arches of the foot?

Medial longitudinal arch
lateral longitudinal arch
transverse arch

32

What maintains the integrity of the foot arches?

plantar calcanenonavicular ligament (spring ligament; main thing holding up medial arch)
long plantar ligament
short plantar ligament
plantar aponeurosis