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Flashcards in Antibacterial agents intro Deck (31):
1

Define bacteristatic

Inhibit bacterial growth
Protein synthesis inhibitors

2

Define Bactericidal

Kill bacteria
Cell wall-active agents

3

Define Minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC

Minimum concentration of antibiotic at which visible growth is inhibited

4

Define Synergism

Activity of two antimicrobials given together is greater than the sum of their activity if given separately

5

Define Antagonism

One agent diminishes the activity of another

6

Define Indifference

Activity unaffected by the addition of another agent

7

What are the 2 main antibacterial mechanisms?

Inhibition of critical process in bacterial cells (Enzymes, molecules or structures)

Selective toxicity
(Target not present in human host or target significantly different in human host)

8

What are 5 main antibiotic targets in a bacterial cell?

Cell wall
Protein synthesis
DNA synthesis
RNA synthesis
Plasma membrane

9

What is the major component of bacterial cell walls?

Peptidoglycan
(made up of NAM and NAG)

10

Which 2 types of antibiotics are cell-wall synthesis inhibitors?

β-lactams
Glycopeptides

11

Name 4 β-lactam antibiotics categories

Penicillins
Cephalosporins
Carbapenems
Monobactams

12

Name 2 glycopeptide antibiotics

vancomycin, teicoplanin

13

What are the 4 main groups of protein synthesis inhibiting antibiotics?

Aminoglycosides
MLS (macrocodes, lincosamides, steptogramins)
Tetracyclines
Oxazolidinones


14

What are some examples of aminoglycosides?

Gentamicin, amikacin

15

What are some MLS antibiotics?

Erythromycin, clarithromycin
Clindamycin

16

Give an example of an oxazolidinone

Linezolid.

17

What are some DNA synthesis inhibitor antibiotic categories?

Trimethoprim, Sulfonamides,
Quinolones and fluoroquinolones

18

What are examples of quinolones?

nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin

19

What is Colistin?

Plasma membrane agent. Absolute last resort gram-negative antibiotic.

20

What is an RNA synthesis inhibitor?

Rifampicin

21

What are the antibiotic-specific adverse effects of aminoglycosides?

Reversible renal impairment on accumulation
Irreversible ototoxicity
Therapeutic drug monitoring indicated

22

What are the antibiotic-specific adverse effects of Β-lactams?

Main problems are allergic reactions
Generalised rash 1-10%
Anaphylaxis approx. 0.01%

23

What is the antibiotic-specific adverse effect of Linezolid?

Bone marrow depression

24

Which 4 antibiotics commonly precipitate C.Diff infection?

Co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin-clavulanate)
Cephalosporins
Ciprofloxacin (fluoroquinolone)
Clindamycin (MLS)

25

What is the key antibiotic combination for:
flucloxacillin?

Staphylococcus aureus (not MRSA)

26

What is the key antibiotic combination for:
benzylpenicillin?

Streptococcus pyogenes

27

What is the key antibiotic combination for:
cephalosporins?

gram-negative bacilli

28

What is the key antibiotic combination for:
metronidazole?

anaerobes

29

What is the key antibiotic combination for:
vancomycin?

Gram-positives (MRSA)

30

What is the key antibiotic combination for:
meropenem?

most clinically-relevant bacteria

31

When is combination therapy appropriate?

to increase efficacy

to provide adequately broad spectrum

to reduce resistance