Flashcards in Immunodeficiency Deck (18):
What are the Pattern recognition receptors
Toll-like receptors (TLR’s), NOD-like receptoes (NLR’s), RigI-like receptors (RLR’s) C-type lectins (CLR’s), scavenger receptors
What are some Antimicrobial peptides?
defensins, cathelin, protegrin, granulsyin, histatin, secretory leukoprotease inhibitor, and probiotics
What are the cells involved in the innate immune system?
Macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, NK-T cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and epithelial cells
What are Complement components?
Classic and alternative complement pathway, and proteins that bind complement components
What are Cytokines?
Autocrine, paracrine, endocrine cytokines that mediate host defense and inflammation, as well as recruit, direct, and regulate adaptive immune responses
What is the function of B lymphocytes?
B lymphocytes develop potential to secret antibodies: humoral immunity
What is the function of Killer or cytotoxic T lymphocytes?
able to kill. Cellular immunity
What is the function of Helper T lymphocytes?
ecrete growth factors (cytokines) which control immune response: Help B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes (Helper T cells are target of HIV)
What is the function of Suppressor T lymphocytes?
may damp down immune response
How does the binding of antibodies to antigens inactivate the antigens?
enhances phagocytosis by:
- neutralisation (blocking viral sites/coating bacteria)
- agglutination of microbes
- precipitation of dissolved antigens
also activated complement system leading to cell lysis
How do cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells?
Once bound to the infected cell, perforin is released which makes holes in the infected cells membrane. Enzymes that promote apoptosis enter and the infected cell is destroyed.
What is immunodeficiency?
Clinical situations where the immune system is not effective enough to protect the body against infection
Can occur at any age.
Remember that children and elderly are much more sensitive to infection.
What are some causes of secondary or acquired immunodeficiencies?
Many causes; transient or long-lasting; minor or major.
Cancer – especially lymphoproliferative disease
Immunosuppressive effect of drugs inc. cancer therapy
What is primary immunodeficiency?
Very rare - but even very rare diseases can occur anywhere.
Extensively studied - give important clues to the working of the immune system - experiments of nature.
Often diagnosed in early childhood but can present in adult life
Recurrent infection often suggests immunological problem
What are the symptoms of chronic granulomatous disease?
Swollen lymph nodes
Inflammatory bowel disease
Which cells does X-linked agammaglobulinaemia affect?
primary B cells
What are the symptoms of defects in T cells?
Symptoms are recurrent infection with opportunistic infections, bacteria, viruses,
Fungi (candida), protozoa (pneumocystis).