Flashcards in antibiotics Deck (10):
when and who discovered penicillin?
what are antibiotics?
substances that either kill bacteria or inhibit their cell processes which stops them growing or reproducing
what do antibiotics not have an effect on and why is this useful?
useful for attacking bacterial infections that the immune system cannot control
why is it important that antibiotics have been developed in different ways?
because different types of bacteria have different structures
they don't all respond in same way to a particular antibiotic
what is a major problem with using antibiotics?
many kinds of bacteria are evolving resistance
-no longer harmed by the antibiotic
what is the first stage of testing a possible new medicine and what does it show?
testing on cells or tissues in the lab
shows if medicines can get into the cells and have the required effect
why do we go through these stages?
all medicines have side effects causing unintended changes that could be harmful
limits side effects
what happens if first stage is successful and what does it show?
tested on animals
how it works in a whole system without risk to humans
if second stage is successful what happens next and what does it show?
small clinical trial on a small number of healthy people
checks it is safe and side effects are limited