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Health, Disease and the Development of Medicine - BIOLOGY > antibiotics > Flashcards

Flashcards in antibiotics Deck (10):

when and who discovered penicillin?

Alexandra Fleming



what are antibiotics?

substances that either kill bacteria or inhibit their cell processes which stops them growing or reproducing


what do antibiotics not have an effect on and why is this useful?

human cells

useful for attacking bacterial infections that the immune system cannot control


why is it important that antibiotics have been developed in different ways?

because different types of bacteria have different structures

they don't all respond in same way to a particular antibiotic


what is a major problem with using antibiotics?

many kinds of bacteria are evolving resistance
-no longer harmed by the antibiotic


what is the first stage of testing a possible new medicine and what does it show?

testing on cells or tissues in the lab

shows if medicines can get into the cells and have the required effect


why do we go through these stages?

all medicines have side effects causing unintended changes that could be harmful

limits side effects


what happens if first stage is successful and what does it show?

tested on animals

how it works in a whole system without risk to humans


if second stage is successful what happens next and what does it show?

small clinical trial on a small number of healthy people

checks it is safe and side effects are limited


what is the final stage for testing a medicine?

large clinical trial on lots of people with the disease that the medicine would be used to treat

helps work out correct dosage and check for different side effects in different people