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Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (56)
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1

Saving commensals and overall population susceptibility (Bacterial Refugia) is achieved by what treatment approach

Specific

2

What is one of the best treatment approaches on finding an increase in fibrinogen, white cell count and presence on phagocytosed bacteria on microscopy?

Combination showing synergism/appropriate broad spectrum

3

Explain antibiotic combination antagonism

Static + cidal

4

For how long should antibiotic therapy be continued after the clinical symptoms disappear?

2 days

5

Name one factor that may increase the necessity of antibiotic use during surgical procedures.

Tissue handling

6

How does polar antibiotics (water soluble) antibiotics cross cell membranes?

Active/receptor assisted

7

Define Area Under the curve (AUC)

Amount of absorbed drug in blood stream

8

What is the half life of a drug?

Time to half concentration

9

Explain the mechanism of time dependent antibiotics.

Time above MIC 40-70%. Average of 50%

10

Name 1 factor which will influence the volume of distribution of an antibiotic.

Protein binding/charge/ size/ pH

11

How can the amount of free antibiotic in the blood be increased

Increase dose

12

Define bioavailability.

Amount of drug in blood measured by AUC

13

Name 3 factors that will influence bioavailability.

Dose, Injection site and volume

14

Define Volume of distribution.

(Total dose-bioavailability) – blood concentration= Vd example. Inject 100mg absorbed 60%. Total amount in body 60mg Blood concentration 20mg 60/20 = 3L/KG

15

Which group of antibiotics generally have a large volume of distribution?

Lipid soluble

16

What are the rules regarding ELDU in pet animals?

Does not apply. Need confirmation animal wont enter food chain.

17

Which are the major food producing species?

Cattle/swine/poultry

18

Where is the best location to give a sc injection in a small ruminant?

axilla

19

What is a side effect giving propylene glycol intravenously?

Lower blood pressure

20

Give an example of a time dependent antibiotic.

Tetracyclines

21

Give an example of an concentration dependent antibiotic.

Fluroquinolones. Depend on concentration. Does not equate to multiple dosing because of post antibiotic effect

22

AUC of penicillin would be affected if which organ fails?

Renal

23

What is the spectrum of penicillin?

Gram positive anerobe

24

Why is penicillin commonly used for the following wound infections, black leg and listeria?

Gram positive

25

In which production animals is the use of penicillin prohibited?

Lactating dairy cows and veal calves

26

You have a animal with a lymph adenopathy. There are phagocytosed bacteria in the lymphocytes. Culture show susceptibility to both procaine penicillin and Tulathromycin (macrolide). Which of the 2 antibiotics would you choose as a initial treatment and why?

Penicillin. Bactericidal preferred over intracellular

27

You have 2 antibiotics. One has a Vd of 10l/kg and the other 36L/kg which of the 2 antibiotics would you choose for a case of septic meningitis. Assume that the sensitivity of both for the infection is the same.

Vd 10L, bactericidal

28

Give 2 advantages of using synthetic penicillin over procaine penicillin.

Gram negative spectrum/can be used in lactating dairy cows and veal calves

29

Why is the meat withdrawal time for procaine penicillin problematic.

Because of variation in dose rates

30

For what type of antibiotic treatment is potassium penicillin often used.

Regional iv antibiosis