Antibiotics (antibacterials) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antibiotics (antibacterials) Deck (15)
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1

Contraindications

- allergic reactions
- toxicity
- development of resistant strains

2

Caution of use

Use in pregnancy
Lactating mothers
Children under 1 yr

3

Dosage

As per manufacturer - general:
- post Sx = qid for 1 wk
- bact conj = qid for 1 wk
- severe bact conj = q2-4h 2d, if improv qid for 5d
- bact keratitis = q1h die & nocte 48 hrs, decrease with clinical response, q2h d, q4h n for 2d then qid for 2 wks

4

Quinolones - uses

Bacterial keratitis
Severe bact conj

NB- ciprofloxacin may precip temp white precips. Ofloxacin is more soluble in cornea

5

Quinolones Paediatric use

Approved down to 1 yr
Except Iquix - 6 yrs and older

6

Quinolones - sensitivity

Broad spectrum, some resistant Gram+ cocci
Fluoroquinolones may be ineffective against MRSA due to systemic use
Besifloxacin - ophthalmic only

7

Quinolones - preparations

Bactericidal

Ciloxan - 0.3% ciprofloxacin - Alcon + generic
Ocuflox - 0.3% ofloxacin - Allergan + generic
Zymar - 0.3% gatifloxacin - Allergan
Zymaxid - 0.5% gatifloxacin - Allergan
Quixin - 0.5% levofloxacin - Vistakon
Iquix - 1.5% levofloxacin - Vistakon . Unpreserved
Vigamox - 0.5% moxifloxacin - Alcon. Unpreserved
Besivance - 0.6% besifloxacin susp - B&L # Invert & shake #

8

Bactericidal amino glycosides - uses

Bact conj
Prophylaxis follow Sx or Occ surface trauma - abrasions
Fortified preps used in dual Tx with cephalosporin for bact keratitis

9

Bactericidal amino glycosides - sensitivity

Broad spectrum antibiotic with some gram+ resistance
Seldom used systemically thus might be effective against MRSA

10

Bactericidal amino glycosides - preps

Genoptic - 0.3% gentamicin drops - Allergan & generic
Fort gentamicin 1.3% - non-commercial
Tobrex - 0.3% tobramycin drops & ointment - Alcon & generics
Fort tobramycin 1.3% - non-commercial

11

Vancomycin
Bactericidal

Ophth use reserved for serious infection:
Infect cryst keratopathy, endophthalmitis, MK
IV
Tricyclic glycopeptide
Inactive against gram- bacilli

12

Cephazoline

Bactericidal

Fort prep used in dual Tx with amino glycoside for
Bact keratitis & endophthalmitis

13

Chloramphenicol - uses

Bact conj
Prophylaxis follow Sx and Occ surface trauma

Broad sensitivity in gram- & gram+ , resistance common

14

Chloramphenicol - caution

FH of blood disorders
Bone marrow suppressive agents
Needing prolonged Tx - pos aplastic anaemia
Non-prescription in Aus - pharmacy only

15

Chloramphenicol - preps

Minims chloramphenicol sol 0.5% - B&L
Chlorsig 0.5% drops and 1.0% ointment - Sigma
Chloromycetin 0.5% drops & 1.0 % ointment - Phizer & generic

General dosage