Symptoms Assoc With Pathology Flashcards Preview

OCANZ Optometry > Symptoms Assoc With Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Symptoms Assoc With Pathology Deck (29)
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Defective vision

Most common ocular symptom
Enquire about:
Onset (sudden vs gradual)
Duration
Painfully vs Painless
Worsening conditions

1

Sudden Painless loss of vision

CRAO
Massive Vitreous Haemorrhage
Retinal Detachment (Macula off)
Ischaemic CRVO

2

Sudden Painless onset of defective vision

Central Serous Retinopathy
Optic Neuritis
Methyl alcohol amblyopia
Non-ischaemic CRVO

3

Sudden Painful loss of vision

Acute congestive Glaucoma
Acute Iridocyclitis
Chemical & Mechanical injuries

4

Gradual Painless defective vision

Progressive pterygium
Corneal degenerations
Corneal dystrophies
Cataract
Optic Atrophy
Chorioretinal degenerations
ARMD
DRP
Ametropias

5

Gradual Painful defective vision

Chronic Iridocyclitis
Corneal ulceration
Chronic glaucoma

6

Transient Vision Loss
Amaurosis fugal

Carotid Artery disease
Papilloedema
GCA
Migraine
Raynaud's disease
Severe Hypertension
Prodromal symptom of CRAO

7

Night Blindness
Nyctalopia

Vit. A deficiency
RP
Tapetoretinal degenerations
Congenital night blindness
Pathological myopia
Peripheral cortical cataract

8

Day blindness
(Hamarlopia)

Polar cataract
Central corneal opacity
Central vitreous opacity
Congenital cone deficiency

9

Reduced near vision

Presbyopia
Cycloplegia
Internal or total ophthalmoplegia
Accom insuff.

10

Black spots or floaters

Vitreous hemorrhage
Vitreous degeneration (senile vs path myopia)
Exudates in vitreous
Lenticular opacities

11

Flashes
(Photopsia)

Traction on retina
PVD
Prodromal to RD
Vitreous traction bands
Sudden = retinal tear
Retinitis

12

Distorted vision
Micropsia, Macropsia & metamorphopsia

Macular lesions eg.
Central Chorioretinitis

13

Coloured Halos

Acute congestive Glaucoma
Early cataract
Mucopurulent conjunctivitis

14

Uni-ocular diplopia

Subluxated lens
Double pupil (polycoria)
Incipient cataract
Keratoconus
Eccentric IOL

15

Diplopia (proper)

Paralytic tropia
Myasthenia gravis
Diabetes mellitus
Thyroid disorders
Blow out fracture
Anisometropic Rx
Post EOM Sx with ARC present (paradoxical diplopia)

16

Hyperlacrimation

Primary hyperlacrimation
Reflex hyperlacrimation
Central or psychical hyperlacrimation

17

Primary hyperlacrimation

Rare condition
Direct stimulation of lacrimal gland
Tumour, cysts or parasympathomimetic drugs

18

Reflex hyperlacrimation

Lids - stye, hordeola, meibomitis, trichiasis, concretions &entropion
Conj - conjunctivitis (any)
Cornea - abrasion, ulcer & non-ulcerative keratitis
Sclera - scleritis, episcleritis
Uvea - iritis, cyclitis, Iridocyclitis
Acute Glaucoma
Endophthalmitis & panophthalmitis
Orbital cellulitis

19

Epiphora
Watering due to blockage

Physiological - lacrimal pump failure
Mechanical - obstruction of lacrimal passages

Think Jones test & Regurgitation test

20

Epiphora - physiological

Lower lid laxity
Weakness of m.orbicularis oculi

21

Ephiphora - mechanical

Punctal eversion
Punctal obstruction - FB, concretion, cilia, chemburn, inj, infect, stenosis due to prolonged idoxuridine or pilocarpine
Canaliculitis ( due to actinomyces)
Lacrimal sac - cong. Mucus mem folds, strictures, dacryocystitis, TB, syphilis, tumor & atonia of the sac
Naso-lacrimal duct - non-canalization, inflammation & tumor

22

Discharge
Ascertain:

Mucoid
Mucopurrulent
Purulent
Serosanguinous or ropy

23

Discharge

Conjunctivitis
Corneal ulcer
Stye
Burst Orbital abscess
Dacryocystitis

24

Itch, burn & FB sensation

Chronic simple conjunctivitis
Dry eye
Trachoma
Conj inflammations
Trichiasis
Entropion

25

Redness

Conjunctivitis
Keratitis
Iridocyclitis
Acute glaucoma

26

Ocular pain

Chk onset, severity, assoc symptoms
Main feature of ocular inflammations & acute glaucoma
May be referred pain from surrounding structures

27

Asthenopia
(Mild eye or head ache, tiredness)
Assoc with near work

EOM imbalance
Uncorrected refractive error

28

Swelling on lids

Chalazion
Tumours