Antibiotics: Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Antibiotics: Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antibiotics: Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis Deck (62):
1

Macrolides MOA

Bind the 50 s subunit irreversibly.

2

Macrolides spectrum

Gram positives. Bacteriostatic.

3

Macrolides elimination

fecal.

4

Macrolides resistance

efflux pumps and methylation of the drug binding site.

5

Macrolides toxicity

Diarrhea (erythro), QT pronlongation, hepatotoxicity and drug interactions (CYP 3A4)

6

Erythromycin

Macrolide. Oral/IV. Has immense GI effects and drug interactions.

7

Clarithromycin (biaxin)

Macrolide. Oral. Least GI disturbance but still has drug interactions.

8

Azithromycin (zithromax)

Macrolide. Oral/IV. Has some GI disturbances but has the least drug interactions.

9

Chlamydia DOC

Azithromycin or tetracycline

10

Ketolides: Telithromycin (ketek) MOA

Binds the 50S subunit with great affinity.

11

Telithromycin (ketek) spectrum

broad spectrum. Bacteriostatic. Good for erythromycin/penicillin resistant respiratory pathogens like pneumococci.

12

Telithromycin (ketek)

Ketolide. Oral.

13

Telithromycin (ketek) toxicity

Diarrhea, hepatotoxicity, drug interactions (CYP3A4).

14

Clindamycin (cleocin) MOA

Reversibly binds the 50S subunit.

15

Clindamycin spectrum

Aerobic gram positives and some anaerobic gram negative and positive organisms. Can be used for strep and staph infections (MRSA). Static or cidal depending on the concentration.

16

Osteomyelitis DOC

Clindamycin

17

Toxic Shock DOC

Clindamycin

18

Toxoplasma encephalitis DOC

Clindamycin

19

Clindamycin toxicity

pseudomembranous colitis (C-Diff). Hepatotoxicity. Crosses the placenta and breast milk.

20

Streptogramins

Dalfopristin;Quinupristin (synercid)

21

Synercid MOA

Blocks ribosome function. Dalfo in the early phase and Quin in the late phase. Bactericidal.

22

Synercid

Streptogramin. Dalfopristin;Quinupristin. IV.

23

Synercid toxicity

GI disturbance and drug interactions (CYP3A4)

24

Oxazolidinone

Linezolid (zyvox)

25

Linezolid MOA

prevents formation of a functional 70S ribosome.

26

Linezolid spectrum

Aerobic gram positive. Reserved as an alternate to prevent resistance.

27

Synercid Spectrum

Aerobic Gram positive. MSSA, MRSA, VRE.

28

Linezolid (zyvox)

Oxazolidinone. IV/Oral.

29

Linezolid toxicity

Reversible, nonselective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) causing an increase in serotonin and NE.

30

Aminoglycosides MOA

Irreversibly inhibit protein synthesis by binding the 30S subunit. Bactericidal. Extremely polar so has to be actively transported into the baceteria using oxygen so limited to aerobes. Concentration dependent killing. With a long PAE.

31

Aminoglycosides spectrum

Aerobic gram negative enteric bacterial rods. Often combined with beta lactam antibiotics.

32

Streptomycin

Aminoglycoside. Second line TB drug. IV/IM.

33

Gentamicin

Aminoglycoside. IV/IM, topical.

34

Tobramycin

Aminoglycoside. IV/IM, topical.

35

Amikacin

Aminoglycoside. IV/IM.

36

Neomycin

Aminoglycoside. Oral, topical.

37

Enterococcus infection DOC

Aminoglycoside and a penicillin.

38

Pseudomonas aerginosa DOC

tobramycin with an antipsuedomonal penicillin

39

Tuleremia DOC

Gentamycin

40

Aminoglycoside toxicity

ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

41

Broad spectrum antibiotics (3)

Chloramphenicol (chloromycetin), tetracyclines and glycylcyclines.

42

Chloramphenicol (choloromycetin) MOA

Binds the 50s subunit and prevents attachment of tRNA. Bacteriostatic. Can have effects on mammalian mitochondria.

43

Chloramphenicol spectrum

reserved for life threatening infections. Broad spectrum. Best CNS penetration.

44

Chloramphenicol treats:

typhoid fever, meningitis (H. influ, N. meningitides (pen resistant), S. pneumoniae), rickettsia, brucellosis, rocky mountain spotted fever, meliodosis, bacterial conjunctivitis (topical).

45

Chloramphenicol toxicity

bone marrow suppression, fatal aplastic anemia, gray baby syndrome.

46

Chloramphenicol elimination

Conjugated with glucuronic acid in the liver.

47

Chloramphenicol Resistance

acetyl transferase can be produced which acetylates the chloramphenicol and inactivates it.

48

Tetracyclines MOA

inhibit protein synthesis by binding the 30S subunit to block tRNA binding. bacteriostatic.

49

Tetracycline spectrum

broad spectrum. Chelation with calcium and iron.

50

Tetracycline contraindications

pregnant women and kids younger than 8.

51

Tetracycline toxicity

Inhibits bone growth and teeth discoloration, photosensitivity, GI, superinfection, hepatotoxicity.

52

Aminoglycoside elimination

excreted rapidly by the kidneys.

53

Tetracycline

Oral.

54

doxycycline

tetracycline. oral.

55

minocycline

tetracyclne. oral.

56

Cholera DOC

Tetracycline

57

Mycoplasma Pneumonia

Tetracycline

58

Lyme disease (early)

Tetracycline

59

Vibrio

Tetracycline

60

Rocky mountain spotted fever

Tetracycline (doxycycline)

61

Glycylcycline MOA

Similar to tetracycline but active against tetracycline resistant organisms.

62

Glycylcycline treats

MRSA, MRSE (S. epidermis), PRSP (pen resistant strep. pneumoniae), VRE.