Antibiotics: Others Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antibiotics: Others Deck (50):
1

Flouroquinolones MOA

inhibit DNA gyrase and topoisomeraze IV. DNA can't be replicated. Bactericidal.

2

Flouroquinolone Spectrum

Aerobic gram negative rods and some gram positive coverage (MRSA). Wide tissue distribution and penetration.

3

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)

Flouroquinolone. Oral. antipsuedomonal.

4

Norfloxacin (noroxin)

Flouroquinolone. Oral. Prostatitis.

5

Ofloxacin (floxin)

Flouroquinolone. Oral. Prostatitis.

6

Levofloxacin (levaquin)

Flouroquinolone. Oral

7

Moxifloxacin (Avelox)

Flouroquinolone. Oral. anaerobes.

8

Gatifloxacin (tequin)

Flouroquinolone. Ocular application only.

9

Gemifloxacin (factive)

Flouroquinolone. Oral. Anaerobes.

10

Anthrax prophylaxis DOC

Cipro.

11

Pseudomonas aerginosa DOC

Cipro.

12

Flouroquinolone toxicity

Increase in QT interval, cartilage erosion, tendon rupture, GI disturbances, photosensitivity.

13

Flouroquinolone contraindications

pregnant and nursing women. children under 18 years of age.

14

Flouroquinolone resistance

changes in gyrase enzyme, decreased permeability, antibiotic modification

15

Metronidazole MOA

Prodrug. metabolites are taken into bacterial DNA where they form unstable molecules leading to fragmentation of the DNA. Need ferredoxin only found in anaerobes. bactericidal.

16

Metronidazole Spectrum

Anaerobic only. Gram positive and negative.

17

Pseudomembranous colitis (C-Diff) DOC

Metronidazole

18

Metronidazole route

oral, IV or topical.

19

Metronidazole toxicity

CNS with prolonged use, GI, Superinfections, metallic taste.

20

Exclusive UTI Drugs (2)

nitrofurantoin (Furadantin) and methenamine

21

Nitrofurantoin MOA

Prodrug reduced in bacteria to a metabolite that can attack and damage DNA and the ribosome. Bactericidal in the urine due to low pH.

22

Nitrofurantoin Spectrum

Gram positive and negative. given orally.

23

Nitrofurantoin toxicity

hemolytic anemia (G6PD deficiency), GI, hepatocellular damage, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Turns urine brown.

24

Nitrofurantoin contraindications

late pregnancy, less than 1 month old, low creatine clearance.

25

Methenamine MOA

prodrug that decomposes to formaldehye and ammonia in the urine and kills bacteria. Need low pH of the urine.

26

Methenamine spectrum

Gram negative with some gram positive activity.

27

Methenamine contraindications

hepatic and renal insufficiency.

28

Sulfonamides MOA

Inhibit folate metabolism by competing with PABA to prevent the reduction of DHF to THF (folic acid). Prevents purine production and inhibits DNA synthesis.

29

Sulfonamides spectrum

Gram positive and negative. Bacteriostatic.

30

TMP-SMX (Bactrim)

Sulfonamide. Made of sulfamethoxazole (inhibits PABA) and trimethoprim (inhibits dihydrofolate reductase). Oral/IV.

31

UTI DOC

TMP-SMX (Bactrim)

32

Prophylaxis for pneumocystis jiroveci infections

TMP-SMX (Bactrim)

33

Sulfamethoxazole (gantanol)

Sulfonamide. Oral. Slow excretion with high urine concentration.

34

Sulfasalazine (azulfidine)

Sulfonamide. Oral. GI action, prodrug. Used to treat ulcerative colitis and RA.

35

Silver sulfazalazine

Sulfonamide. topical burn treatment.

36

Sulfonamides Elimination

metabolized in the liver, excreted by the kidney.

37

Sulfonamides Contraindications

late pregnancy, nursing or premature/jaundiced infants. Any infants less than 2 months old.

38

Sulfonamides resistance

increased PABA production, efflux pumps, decreased permeability, alternative metabolism (plasmids).

39

Sulfonamides toxicity

SJS, kernicterus (compete with bili binding), aplastic anemia (G6PD), hematopoietic toxicity, kidney/liver damage, photosensitivity, common drug allergy.

40

Daptomycin (cubicin) MOA

Lipoprotein antibiotics that forms transmembrane channels that lead to rapid depolarization causing cell death. Bactericidal.

41

Daptomycin (cubicin) spectrum

Bactericidal against Gram positives (MRSA and MSSA)

42

Daptomycin (cubicin)

IV. Empiric therapy in patients with a serious gram positive infection. Used as an alternative to vancomycin.

43

Mupirocin (bactroban) MOA

reversibly binds to tRNA synthetase so it can't make isoleucine tRNA. Inhibits protein and RNA synthesis. Produced by pseudomonas fluorescens.

44

Mupirocin (bactroban) spectrum

Gram positive and negative. Usually bacteriostatic but can be bactericidal at high concentrations.

45

Mupirocin (bactroban)

topical or intranasal application for infections of MRSA. Also used for impetigo (S. aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes).

46

Polypeptide antibiotics MOA

lipid a endotoxin (gram negative cell membranes only).

47

Polypeptide antibiotics spectrum

gram negative bacilli

48

Polymyxin B (aerosporin)

Polypeptide antibiotics. topical

49

Colistin (polymyxin E)

Polypeptide antibiotics. topical.

50

Polypeptide antibiotics uses

Usually used in combination with neomycin and bacitracin as topical ointment. Also active against pseudomonas in the eye.