Flashcards in Antibiotics: Others Deck (50)
inhibit DNA gyrase and topoisomeraze IV. DNA can't be replicated. Bactericidal.
Aerobic gram negative rods and some gram positive coverage (MRSA). Wide tissue distribution and penetration.
Flouroquinolone. Oral. antipsuedomonal.
Flouroquinolone. Oral. Prostatitis.
Flouroquinolone. Oral. Prostatitis.
Flouroquinolone. Oral. anaerobes.
Flouroquinolone. Ocular application only.
Flouroquinolone. Oral. Anaerobes.
Anthrax prophylaxis DOC
Pseudomonas aerginosa DOC
Increase in QT interval, cartilage erosion, tendon rupture, GI disturbances, photosensitivity.
pregnant and nursing women. children under 18 years of age.
changes in gyrase enzyme, decreased permeability, antibiotic modification
Prodrug. metabolites are taken into bacterial DNA where they form unstable molecules leading to fragmentation of the DNA. Need ferredoxin only found in anaerobes. bactericidal.
Anaerobic only. Gram positive and negative.
Pseudomembranous colitis (C-Diff) DOC
oral, IV or topical.
CNS with prolonged use, GI, Superinfections, metallic taste.
Exclusive UTI Drugs (2)
nitrofurantoin (Furadantin) and methenamine
Prodrug reduced in bacteria to a metabolite that can attack and damage DNA and the ribosome. Bactericidal in the urine due to low pH.
Gram positive and negative. given orally.
hemolytic anemia (G6PD deficiency), GI, hepatocellular damage, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Turns urine brown.
late pregnancy, less than 1 month old, low creatine clearance.
prodrug that decomposes to formaldehye and ammonia in the urine and kills bacteria. Need low pH of the urine.
Gram negative with some gram positive activity.
hepatic and renal insufficiency.
Inhibit folate metabolism by competing with PABA to prevent the reduction of DHF to THF (folic acid). Prevents purine production and inhibits DNA synthesis.
Gram positive and negative. Bacteriostatic.
Sulfonamide. Made of sulfamethoxazole (inhibits PABA) and trimethoprim (inhibits dihydrofolate reductase). Oral/IV.
Prophylaxis for pneumocystis jiroveci infections
Sulfonamide. Oral. Slow excretion with high urine concentration.
Sulfonamide. Oral. GI action, prodrug. Used to treat ulcerative colitis and RA.
Sulfonamide. topical burn treatment.
metabolized in the liver, excreted by the kidney.
late pregnancy, nursing or premature/jaundiced infants. Any infants less than 2 months old.
increased PABA production, efflux pumps, decreased permeability, alternative metabolism (plasmids).
SJS, kernicterus (compete with bili binding), aplastic anemia (G6PD), hematopoietic toxicity, kidney/liver damage, photosensitivity, common drug allergy.
Daptomycin (cubicin) MOA
Lipoprotein antibiotics that forms transmembrane channels that lead to rapid depolarization causing cell death. Bactericidal.
Daptomycin (cubicin) spectrum
Bactericidal against Gram positives (MRSA and MSSA)
IV. Empiric therapy in patients with a serious gram positive infection. Used as an alternative to vancomycin.
Mupirocin (bactroban) MOA
reversibly binds to tRNA synthetase so it can't make isoleucine tRNA. Inhibits protein and RNA synthesis. Produced by pseudomonas fluorescens.
Mupirocin (bactroban) spectrum
Gram positive and negative. Usually bacteriostatic but can be bactericidal at high concentrations.
topical or intranasal application for infections of MRSA. Also used for impetigo (S. aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes).
Polypeptide antibiotics MOA
lipid a endotoxin (gram negative cell membranes only).
Polypeptide antibiotics spectrum
gram negative bacilli
Polymyxin B (aerosporin)
Polypeptide antibiotics. topical
Colistin (polymyxin E)
Polypeptide antibiotics. topical.