Antidepressants Flashcards Preview

PSYC317 > Antidepressants > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antidepressants Deck (24)
Loading flashcards...
1

Iproniazid

~ block reuptake of both serotonin and noradrenaline
~ tricyclic antidepressant

2

Name the side effects of Imipramine.

~ dry mouth
~ impaired muscular control in eye (blurred vision)
~ tachycardia
~ constipation
~ weight gain

3

Monoamine hypothesis

depression is caused by a deficiency of monoamine NT e.g. noradrenaline + serotonin

4

Name the evidence for the monoamine hypothesis.

1. drugs that reduce monoamine NT = depression
2. known antidepressants increase monoamine NT = alleviate depression

5

Name the two discoveries that lead to the monoamine hypothesis.

(Ashcroft + Eccleston, 1960) - decreases serotonin and 5HT were found in brain autopsies of sucide victims
(Axelrod, 1961) - monoamine reuktake blocked by imipramine

6

Serotonin + depression

serotonin transmission in raphe nuclei is decreased in depressed patients

7

Problems with monoamine hypothesis 1.

~ Time lag between administration of drug and relief of depressive symptoms
~ antidepressants boost NA and 5HT levels immediately

8

Problems with monoamine hypothesis 2.

~ Inconsistent findings regarding decreased NA and serotonin in depressed patients
~ maybe changes in NT receptors sensitivity mediate the clinical effects of antidepressant drugs (new theory, needs further investigation)

9

SSRIs

a.k.a. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors e.g. Prozac
~ increase serotonergic activity
~ drugs are 1st choice for treating depression as they produce less severe side effects

10

Side effects of SSRIs.

~ mild nausea
~ sexual dysfunction (symptoms decrease as treatment progress)

11

Symptoms of depression.

~ cognitive (feelings of low self-worth + guilt)
~ physical (loss of appetite + insomnia)
~ emotional (persistently sad, anxious + hopelessness)
~ motivational (lack of motivation + aspiration)

12

Iproniazid

~ 1st antidepressant
~ monoamine agonist
~ increases lvls of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine by inhibiting monoaminooxidase (MAO)

13

Name the side effects of Iproniazid.

~ liver damage
~ disfunction in blood pressure control --> hypertensive crisis

14

How can Iproniazid cause a hypertensive crisis?

~ it is a non-specific MAO blocker
~ blocks MAO-A which when inhibited takes only 10mg of tyramine to cause increased blood pressure

15

Tyramine

amino acid found in mature cheese, red wine and marmite

16

SSRI vs SNRI

~ study in healthy volunteers showed there was a right and wrong drug for people
~ compared effects of sertraline (SSRI) and reboxetine (SNRI)
~ some people did well on one and not on the other

17

Sertraline

~ SSRI
~ causes emotional blunting

18

Antidepressants + age

~ they stop working as well when you get to 65yr+ so augmenting strategies are used
~ common problem in Major Depressive Disorder

19

SNRIs

A.k.a. serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors
~ work similarly to SSRIs

20

Iproniazid

~ MAOI
~ 1st antidepressant made, accidentally as meant to treat TB

21

MAOIs

black the enzyme monoamine oxidase by irreversibly inhabiting it

22

MAO

family of enzymes that metabolise + inactivate monoamine NT

23

Reboxetine

~ SNRI
~ creates energised feelings

24

Treatment-resistant depression

when normal anti-depressants don't work, solution is to try combination of SSRIs + other drugs
e.g. symbyax = prozac + zyprexa