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Flashcards in Antidepressants Deck (24)
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1
Q

Iproniazid

A

~ block reuptake of both serotonin and noradrenaline

~ tricyclic antidepressant

2
Q

Name the side effects of Imipramine.

A
~ dry mouth
~ impaired muscular control in eye (blurred vision)
~ tachycardia
~ constipation
~ weight gain
3
Q

Monoamine hypothesis

A

depression is caused by a deficiency of monoamine NT e.g. noradrenaline + serotonin

4
Q

Name the evidence for the monoamine hypothesis.

A
  1. drugs that reduce monoamine NT = depression

2. known antidepressants increase monoamine NT = alleviate depression

5
Q

Name the two discoveries that lead to the monoamine hypothesis.

A

(Ashcroft + Eccleston, 1960) - decreases serotonin and 5HT were found in brain autopsies of sucide victims
(Axelrod, 1961) - monoamine reuktake blocked by imipramine

6
Q

Serotonin + depression

A

serotonin transmission in raphe nuclei is decreased in depressed patients

7
Q

Problems with monoamine hypothesis 1.

A

~ Time lag between administration of drug and relief of depressive symptoms
~ antidepressants boost NA and 5HT levels immediately

8
Q

Problems with monoamine hypothesis 2.

A

~ Inconsistent findings regarding decreased NA and serotonin in depressed patients
~ maybe changes in NT receptors sensitivity mediate the clinical effects of antidepressant drugs (new theory, needs further investigation)

9
Q

SSRIs

A

a.k.a. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors e.g. Prozac
~ increase serotonergic activity
~ drugs are 1st choice for treating depression as they produce less severe side effects

10
Q

Side effects of SSRIs.

A

~ mild nausea

~ sexual dysfunction (symptoms decrease as treatment progress)

11
Q

Symptoms of depression.

A

~ cognitive (feelings of low self-worth + guilt)
~ physical (loss of appetite + insomnia)
~ emotional (persistently sad, anxious + hopelessness)
~ motivational (lack of motivation + aspiration)

12
Q

Iproniazid

A

~ 1st antidepressant
~ monoamine agonist
~ increases lvls of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine by inhibiting monoaminooxidase (MAO)

13
Q

Name the side effects of Iproniazid.

A

~ liver damage

~ disfunction in blood pressure control –> hypertensive crisis

14
Q

How can Iproniazid cause a hypertensive crisis?

A

~ it is a non-specific MAO blocker

~ blocks MAO-A which when inhibited takes only 10mg of tyramine to cause increased blood pressure

15
Q

Tyramine

A

amino acid found in mature cheese, red wine and marmite

16
Q

SSRI vs SNRI

A

~ study in healthy volunteers showed there was a right and wrong drug for people
~ compared effects of sertraline (SSRI) and reboxetine (SNRI)
~ some people did well on one and not on the other

17
Q

Sertraline

A

~ SSRI

~ causes emotional blunting

18
Q

Antidepressants + age

A

~ they stop working as well when you get to 65yr+ so augmenting strategies are used
~ common problem in Major Depressive Disorder

19
Q

SNRIs

A

A.k.a. serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors

~ work similarly to SSRIs

20
Q

Iproniazid

A

~ MAOI

~ 1st antidepressant made, accidentally as meant to treat TB

21
Q

MAOIs

A

black the enzyme monoamine oxidase by irreversibly inhabiting it

22
Q

MAO

A

family of enzymes that metabolise + inactivate monoamine NT

23
Q

Reboxetine

A

~ SNRI

~ creates energised feelings

24
Q

Treatment-resistant depression

A

when normal anti-depressants don’t work, solution is to try combination of SSRIs + other drugs
e.g. symbyax = prozac + zyprexa