Antidiabetic agents Flashcards Preview

Pharm Exam 6 > Antidiabetic agents > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antidiabetic agents Deck (33):
0

Diaxozide

(Proglycem) Non-diuretic thiazide, vasodilator, hyperglycemic
Tx for insulinomas
Directly inhibits insulin secretion, dec glucose periph use, stim gluconeogenesis.
Adv: excessive hair growth (esp kids)

1

Glucagon

Hyperglycemic agent - requires glycogen. IM, SC, IV, gradual onset
Tx: adults w/ stable DM, Bblocker OD, to relax GI (radio)
Adv: not for juveniles

2

Tolbutamide (Orinase)

1st gen Sulfonylurea - block K+ch, depol: direct inc insulin release
Tx: DM, safer in elderly
Adv: hypoglycemia, GI, wt gain
CI: Sulfa allergy, renal/hepatic dz

3

Chlorpropamide (Diabenese)

1st gen Sulfonylurea - block K+ch, depol: direct inc insulin release
Tx: DM, disulfiram like effect (flushing)
Adv: hypoglycemia, GI, wt gain
CI: Sulfa allergy, renal/hepatic dz

4

Tolazamide (Tolinase)

1st gen Sulfonylurea - block K+ch, depol: direct inc insulin release
Tx: DM
Adv: hypoglycemia, GI, wt gain
CI: Sulfa allergy, renal/hepatic dz

5

Glyburide (Micronase)

2nd gen Sulfonylurea - block K+ch, depol: direct inc insulin release
Tx: DM, worst for hypoglycemia
Adv: hypoglycemia, GI, wt gain
CI: Sulfa allergy, renal/hepatic dz

6

Glipizide (Glucotrol)

2nd gen Sulfonylurea - block K+ch, depol: direct inc insulin release
Tx: DM, least hypoglycemic effect
Adv: hypoglycemia, GI, wt gain
CI: Sulfa allergy, renal/hepatic dz

7

Glimepiride (Amaryl)

2nd gen Sulfonylurea - block K+ch, depol: direct inc insulin release
Tx: DM
Adv: hypoglycemia, GI, wt gain
CI: Sulfa allergy, renal/hepatic dz

8

Repaglinide (Prandin)

Metglitinide- Tx: DM
block K+ch: mimics endo insulin pattern (dec postprandial glucose)
Not sulfa, short acting (preprandial dose), NO WT GAIN
Adv: slight hypoglycemia
CI: Not for combo w/ sulfas, liver dz, preg cat C

9

Nateglinide (Starlix)

Metglitinide- Tx: DM
block K+ch: mimics endo insulin pattern (dec postprandial glucose)
Not sulfa, short acting (preprandial dose), NO WT GAIN
Adv: slight hypoglycemia
CI: Not for combo w/ sulfas, liver dz, preg cat C

10

Metformin (Glucophage)

Biguanide -Tx: DM, dec glucose levels (not by releasing insulin)
Safe >10yo, no wt gain, dec macrovasc events, no hypoglycemia
Adv: lactic acidosis (renal/hep, alcolo, CHF, COPD), DIARRHEA
CI: preg/breast feeding

11

Pioglitazone (Actos)

Glitazone/Thiazolidinediones "insulin sensitizer" Post-receptor insulin mimetic (nuclear PPAR-y ligand), wks/mos for onset, no insulin release
Lowers insulin resistance, dec development of T2DM
Adv: wt gain, edema (inc risk of heart dz)
CI: hepatic dz, CHF, preg cat C

12

Rosiglitazone (Avandia)

Glitazone/Thiazolidinediones "insulin sensitizer" Post-receptor insulin mimetic (nuclear PPAR-y ligand), wks/mos for onset, no insulin release
Lowers insulin resistance, dec development of T2DM
Adv: wt gain, edema (inc risk of heart dz)
CI: hepatic dz, CHF, preg cat C

13

Acarbose (Precose)

a-glucosidase inhibitor (SI enterocytes)-
delays carb digestion, diet aid in T1-2DM
dec postprandial glucose, no wt gain
Adv: FLATULENCE
CI: breastfeed, GI dz, renal/hepatic dz

14

Miglitol (Glyset)

a-glucosidase inhibitor (SI enterocytes)-
delays carb digestion, diet aid in T1-2DM
dec postprandial glucose, no wt gain
Adv: FLATULENCE
CI: breastfeed, GI dz, renal/hepatic dz

15

Exenatide (Byetta)

GLP-1 agonist resistant to DPP-IV, SubQ 2x/day
Tx: dec postprandial gluc, inc Bcell, wt loss, no hypoglycemia
Adv: GI, HS, pancreatitis, pancreas/thyroid CA
CI: slow GI, renal sz, preg/breastfeed, thyroid Ca

16

Liraglutide (Victoza)

GLP-1 agonist resistant to DPP-IV, SubQ 1x/day
Tx: dec postprandial gluc, inc Bcell, wt loss, no hypoglycemia
Adv: GI, HS, pancreatitis, thyroid CA
CI: slow GI, renal sz, preg/breastfeed, thyroid Ca

17

Dulaglutide (Trulicity)

GLP-1 agonist resistant to DPP-IV, SubQ 1x/wk
Tx: dec postprandial gluc, inc Bcell, wt loss, no hypoglycemia
Adv: GI, HS, pancreatitis, pancreas/thyroid CA
CI: slow GI, renal sz, preg/breastfeed, thyroid Ca

18

Sitagliptin (Januvia)

DPP-IV inhibitor- more incretin effect (inc gluc dependent insulin sec)
Oral, dec postprandial/fasting gluc, no wt gain
Adv: HS, pancrea-titis/Ca
CI: slow GI, renal dz, preg/breastfeed cat C

19

Saxagliptin (Onglyza)

DPP-IV inhibitor- more incretin effect (inc gluc dependent insulin sec)
Oral, dec postprandial/fasting gluc, no wt gain
Adv: HS, pancrea-titis/Ca
CI: slow GI, renal dz, preg/breastfeed cat C

20

Linagliptin (Tradjenta)

DPP-IV inhibitor- more incretin effect (inc gluc dependent insulin sec)
Oral, dec postprandial/fasting gluc, no wt gain
Adv: HS, pancrea-titis/Ca
CI: slow GI, renal dz, preg/breastfeed cat C

21

Alogliptan (Nesina)

DPP-IV inhibitor- more incretin effect (inc gluc dependent insulin sec)
Oral, dec postprandial/fasting gluc, no wt gain
Adv: HS, pancrea-titis/Ca
CI: slow GI, renal dz, preg/breastfeed cat C

22

Pramlintide (Symlin)

Centrally acting DM1-2 tx, amylin analog, Adjunct w/ insulin, SubQ
Wt loss (appetite dec), dec postprandial glucose
Adv: GI, injection site lipodystrophy
CI: slow GI, preg/breastfeed

23

Bromocriptine (Cycloset)

DA agonist- DM specific, inc suppression of gluconeogenesis, oral
dec FFA/TG-dec CV endpoint pd. Take <2hrs waking, CYP3A4
Adv: N, weak, dizzy, GI (mild)
CI: CYP3A4 interact, ergot all, syncope/hypotension, dec lactation

24

Colesevelam (WelChol)

Bile acid resin, combo tx for DM2, dec hyperlipidemia
Adv: constipation, bloating

25

Canagliflozin (Invokana)

Inhibits SGLT2 in kidney, dec reabsorption of glucose Tx: DM
Adv: UTI, frequency, osmotic diuresis
CI: renal dz, UTI prone.

26

Dapagliflozin (Farxiga)

Inhibits SGLT2 in kidney, dec reabsorption of glucose Tx: DM
Adv: UTI, frequency, osmotic diuresis
CI: renal dz, UTI prone.

27

Insulin lispro (Humalog)

Rapid acting insulin- IV

28

Insulin aspart (Novo Log)

Rapid acting insulin- IV

29

Insulin glulisine (Apidra)

Rapid acting insulin- IV

30

NPH
Isophane insulin (Humulin N, Novolin N)

Intermediate acting insulin - Not IV, in Phosphate buffer

31

Insulin glargine (Lantus)

Long-acting insulin- not IV, ppts in body

32

Insulin detemir (Levemir)

Long-acting insulin- not IV, bound to albumin