Parasitic infections associated with HIV (U.S. and Global)
US = PCP, Toxo, Crypto
Worldwide = Malaria, Leshmania, T. cruzii (Chagas)
Pentamidine's major problem
its highly toxic
50% of patients have sides
Pentamidine is first line for what?
West African Trypanosomiasis
**also Alternative treatment for visceral leishmania and Pneumocystosis
- E. Hystolytica
- Trichomonas vaginalis
One of the most common water borne illnesses in US
Incidence of T. vaginalis in US
20-25% of women
E. Hystolytica cysts are killed by...
boiling, but not by chlorination
Amebiasis is more common ________, but...
Latin america, Africa, India
but it can occur anywhere
Most amebiasises are _____
but some people develop liver abscesses
Giardia incidence in developed countries
Most common intestinal parasite in US
Cryptosporidium is the most frequent cause of...
recreational water-related disease outbreaks
Most common Cryptosporidium symptom
other sx = N/V, cramps, dehydration, weight loss and fever!
Drug of choice for Cryptosporidium
T. vaginalis Sx
vaginitis with purulent discharge
vulvar and cervical lesions
(often asymptomatic in men)
Metronidazole is DOC for
E. histolytica, Giardiasis, Trichomonas
kills trophozoites, not cysts
activated by anaerobe ETC proteins
Drug similar to Mzole? How is it different?
Mzole and alcohol may result in...
= N/V, Tachycardia
Mzole blocks ACETALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE
amebiasis treatment - drugs for intestinal forms
Paromomycin + Iodoquinol
also effective against...
not significantly absorbed in GI
also effective against Cryptosporidium
Iodoquinol is an alternative to ____
commonly used in combo with _____
Alt to Paromomycin
Combo wiht Mzole
inhibits what organisms?
Rapid metabolism to tizoxanide
Interferes with PFOR (pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase)-dependent electron transport reaction ---> inhibits anaerobic metabolism
Inhibits: Sporozoites + Oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum
Trophozoites of Giardia
95% of trypanosomiasis due to what?
brucei gambiense -- west african trypanosomiasis
5% of trypanosomiasis caused by ...
brucei rhodesiense -- east african trypanosomiasis