Antiparasitics 2 (LaCount) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antiparasitics 2 (LaCount) Deck (85)
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1

Parasitic infections associated with HIV  (U.S. and Global)

US = PCP, Toxo, Crypto

 

Worldwide = Malaria, Leshmania, T. cruzii (Chagas)

2

Pentamidine mechanism

unknown

3

Pentamidine's major problem

its highly toxic

50% of patients have sides

4

Pentamidine ROA

parenteral

5

Pentamidine Sides

hyper/hypoglycemia (rare)

6

Pentamidine is first line for what?

West African Trypanosomiasis

 

**also Alternative treatment for visceral leishmania and Pneumocystosis

7

Anaerobic protozoa

  • E. Hystolytica
  • Giardia
  • Trichomonas vaginalis

8

One of the most common water borne illnesses in US

giardia

9

Incidence of T. vaginalis in US

20-25% of women

10

E. Hystolytica cysts are killed by...

boiling, but not by chlorination

11

Amebiasis is more common ________, but...

Latin america, Africa, India

 

but it can occur anywhere

12

Most amebiasises are _____

 

but...

asymptomatic

 

but some people develop liver abscesses

13

Giardia incidence in developed countries

2% adults

7% kids

14

Most common intestinal parasite in US

giardia

15

Giardia Tx

Metronidazole

Nitazoxanide

16

Cryptosporidium is the most frequent cause of...

recreational water-related disease outbreaks

17

Most common Cryptosporidium symptom

watery diarrhea

 

other sx = N/V, cramps, dehydration, weight loss and fever!

18

Drug of choice for Cryptosporidium 

Nitazoxanide!

19

T. vaginalis Sx

vaginitis with purulent discharge

vulvar and cervical lesions

 

(often asymptomatic in men)

20

Metronidazole is DOC for 

E. histolytica, Giardiasis, Trichomonas

 

21

Mzole kills...

kills trophozoites, not cysts

22

Mzole mechanism

unknown

activated by anaerobe ETC proteins

23

Drug similar to Mzole? How is it different?

Tinidazole

lower toxicity

24

Mzole and alcohol may result in...

Antabuse effect

=  N/V, Tachycardia

 

Mzole blocks ACETALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE

25

amebiasis treatment - drugs for intestinal forms

Paromomycin + Iodoquinol

26

Paromomycin catergory

distribution

also effective against...

Aminoglycoside

not significantly absorbed in GI

also effective against Cryptosporidium

27

Iodoquinol is an alternative to ____

commonly used in combo with _____

Mechanism?

Alt to Paromomycin

Combo wiht Mzole

Mechanism unknown

28

Nitazoxanide PK

Mechanism

inhibits what organisms?

Rapid metabolism to tizoxanide

Interferes with PFOR (pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase)-dependent electron transport reaction ---> inhibits anaerobic metabolism

 

Inhibits: Sporozoites + Oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum

Trophozoites of Giardia

29

95% of trypanosomiasis due to what?

brucei gambiense -- west african trypanosomiasis

30

5% of trypanosomiasis caused by ...

brucei rhodesiense -- east african trypanosomiasis