Antibiotics 3.1 - Chloramphenicol Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antibiotics 3.1 - Chloramphenicol Deck (16):
1

Choramphenicol obtained from _____

Streptomyces venezuelae

2

Choramphenicol MOA

Binds reversibly to the 50S subunit

(near the site for erythromycin and clindamycin)

Inhibits the peptidyltransferase step and blocks peptide formation between the P and A sites

3

Primary use for Choramphenicol

ointment/eyedrops for bacterial conjunctivitis

4

Choramphenicol prodrug for IV/IM administration?

 

Metabolism?

Choramphenicol sodium succinate

 

hydrolyzed to Choramphenicol in the liver

5

CSS is specifically indicated for what diseases?

Bacterial meningitis

Typhoid fever

Rickettsia

Intraocular infections

 

6

Chloramphenicol PK (solubility, bound to, penetration)

Lipid solule

bound to plasma proteins

penetrates into all tissues including brain

7

Three mechanisms for Choramphenicol resistance

Reduced membrane permeability

50S subunit mutation

production of Choramphenicol Acetyltransferase

8

How does Choramphenicol Acetyltransferase work?

It acetylates one or both hydroxy groups to form non-binding metabolites

9

Most serious Choramphenicol AE

Aplastic anemia

 

**occurs weeks or months after adminstration

10

Choramphenicol AE that is slightly less serious but more common

bone marrow suppression

d/t impairment of mitochondrial function from the inhibition of protein synthesis

11

Reversible AE from Choramphenicol

bone marrow suppression

 

**Does NOT predict the occurrence of aplastic anemia in future

12

Bone marrow suppression is predicted after a cumulative Choramphenicol dose of ____

20g

13

Childhood Choramphenicol use comes with an increased risk for ________

Childhood leukemia

14

Choramphenicol is metabolized to ______ in the liver

 

Reaction?

its glucuronide conjugate

 

Less hindered primary alcohol attack on UDPGA, catalyzed by glucuronyl transferase

15

Excretion of Choramphenicol metabolite?

Kidney

16

_____ should never receive Choramphenicol

Neonates

 

Can't metabolize it (glucuronyltransferase)