Antiparasitics Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Block 3 > Antiparasitics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antiparasitics Deck (16):
1

Mebendazole:

Uses: -Effective against many intestinal roundworms.
-Kills some ova.
-Low systemic bioavailability causes low incidence of SEs.

2

Albendazole:

Uses: -Echinococcus.
-Neurocysticercosis due to pork tapeworm.
-Great against cutaneous larval migrans.

3

Thiabendazole:

Uses:-Strongyloidiasis.
-Cutaneous larva migrans.
-Also effective against roundworms.

4

Pyrantel pamoate:

Uses: -Pinworm, roundworm.
-Poorly absorbed.

5

Praziquantel:

Uses: -Drug of choice for all species of Schistosoma.
-Some activity against other trematodes.
-Use for pork tapeworm, prevention of neurocysticercosis (also hits tapeworm eggs).

6

Paromomycin sulfate:

Use: -Tapeworm infections, especially those who can’t tolerate other drugs.
-Luminal amebicide for intestinal amebiasis.

7

Chloroquine:

MOA: Blood schizonticide. Selectively target intraerythrocytic trophozoites – inhibits heme polymerization within trophozoite, allowing heme to accumulate to toxic levels.

Uses: -Prevents attacks of all 4 species of malaria (except chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum).
-Hits P. malariae and chloroquine-sensitive P falciparum, but does not completely cure vivax and ovale.

SEs: Visual impairment.

8

Mefloquine:

MOA: Blood schizonticide. Selectively target intraerythrocytic trophozoites – inhibits heme polymerization within trophozoite, allowing heme to accumulate to toxic levels.

Uses:-Treatment of multi-drug resistant P. falciparum.
-Used as prophylaxis in areas where organisms are chloroquine-resistant.

SEs: CNS effects, vestibular effects.
Contraindicated in patients with epilepsy or other psych disorders.

9

Atovaquone + proguanil:

MOA: both drugs block pyrimidine synthesis.

Uses:Prevention and treatment of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum.

10

Quinine:

MOA: Blood schizonticide. Selectively target intraerythrocytic trophozoites – inhibits heme polymerization within trophozoite, allowing heme to accumulate to toxic levels.

Uses: -Blood schizonticide against all four malarial parasites (even chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum).
-Agent of choice against severe acute attacks.

SEs: -Cinchonism: headache, visual disturbance, dizziness, tinnitus.
-Cardiac effects.
-GI effects.

11

Doxycycline:

MOA: Decrease malarial protein and pyrimidine synthesis.

Uses: -Multidrug-resistant P. falciparum

SEs: -GI effects.
-Candida superinfection.
-Photosensitization.
*-teeth discoloration – avoid use in kids.
-Contraindicated in pregnancy.

12

Primaquine:

Uses: -Drug of choice for vivax and ovale; will kill dormant liver schizonts.
-Should be used in conjunction with blood schizonticide.
-Used in combination with clindamycin to treat pneumocystis pneumonia in AIDS patients.

SEs: -Hemolytic reactions in those with G6PD deficiency.

13

Metronidazole:

-Tissue amebicide – for symptomatic infections of E. histolytica.
-Giardia
-Trichomonas vaginalis

14

Iodoquinol:

-Use in combination with metronidazole for mild to severe infections of E. histolytica.

15

Atovaquone:

MOA: Selective inhibitor of protozoal mitochondrial electron transport, ultimately affecting pyrimidine synthesis.

Uses: -Alternate treatment/prophylaxis for Pneumocystis.
-Toxoplasma gondii infections.

16

Nitazoxanide:

MOA: Interferes with anaerobic energy metabolism.

Uses: -Giardia.
-Cryptosporidium parvum.