Flashcards in CNS Stimulants Deck (16):
1. Blocks adenosine receptors (post-synaptic receptors produce IPSPs, pre-synaptic receptors inhibit glutamate release – blocks both of those inhibitor effects).
2. At higher doses, blocks PDE – results in an increase in cAMP, beneficial for asthma.
CNS: increased alertness, decreased fatigue.
Peripheral: -positive chronotropic, inotropic effects.
-Dilates coronary and general systemic blood vessels but constricts cerebral blood vessels.
-High doses can stimulate medullary respiratory, vasomotor and vagal centers.
Releases NE, DA, 5HT, blocks transmitter uptake into presynaptic terminals, direct partial agonist of alpha-adrenergic receptors, MAO inhibition (at high doses).
-Potent inhibitor of the reuptake of NE, DA, 5HT.
--Increasing DA produces feelings of euphoria, feelings of elation.
-Increasing NE causes vasoconstriction, tachycardia, increased alertness.
-Neurotoxic effects due to damage to DA systems. OD can cause seizures and/or CV effects.
-Fetal effects – low birth weight, learning and emotional problems, attachment disorder, addiction.
-Releases NE, DA, 5HT, blocks transmitter uptake into presynaptic terminals, direct partial agonist of alpha-adrenergic receptors, MAO inhibition (at high doses).
-Metabolized and excreted unchanged.
Produces wakefulness, alertness, decreased fatigue, increased intellectual performance. Peripheral sympathomimetic effects.
-Insomnia, abdominal pain, anorexia.
-Toxicity: sympathomimetic effects, restlessness, dizziness, tremor.
Same as amphetamines, but better CNS bioavailability.
-Agonist of nicotinic cholinergic receptors.
-Sympathetic ganglia activation results in release of epinephrine.
-Parasympathetic effects result in GI motility.
-CNS effects: increased alertness, activates DA signaling.
-Is reinforcing: activates neuronal symptoms designed to maintain behaviors that are important for survival. Each puff of a cigarette is reinforcing – reason why it is so addicting.
Seems to enhance noradrenergic and dopaminergic signaling.
Reduces craving and nicotine withdrawal symptoms.
Partial agonist of CNS nicotinic receptors. Effect is twofold: activates nicotinic receptors enough to reduce craving and withdrawal, reduces the effects of the full agonist (nicotine).