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Flashcards in Antivirals Deck (14)
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1

why is acyclovir more selectively toxic than other antivirals?

- it is activated by viral kinases
- so you only get the drug activated in cells that are infected w/ the virus you are going after

2

what 3 viruses can you use acyclovir against?

VZV, HSV, EBV

3

what are 2 indications for valacyclovir?

- recurrent genital herpes
- zoster infections

4

2 indications for famciclovir?

- acute herpes zoster
- suppression of recurrent genital herpes

5

herpes encephalitis: early symptoms and DOC

- acute onset of fever, headache, decreased consciousness and seizures
- DOC = acyclovir

6

how is gancyclovir metabolized to active form inside host cell?

- acts as an antimetabolite
- first phosphorylated by viral and then by cellular kinases; then forms a nucleotide that inhibits DNS polymerase of CMV

7

how does cidofovir have selective toxicity?

- 1000x more effective against DNA polymerases of viruses like HSV than against DNA polymerase of host cell

8

what is unique about metabolism requirement of foscarnet?

- it inhibits viral DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase or HIV RT directly
- does not require activation by phosphorylation

9

viruses attacked by foscarnet? (7 of them)

CMV
HSV
VZV
EBV
HHV-6
HBV
HIV

10

CDC guidelines for tx of influenze in adults

- zanamivir if 7+ yo
- aseltamivir if 1+ yo
- amatadinei for influenza A in age 1+
- rimantadine for influenza A in adults only

11

MOA of neurominidaze inhibitors (zanamivir and aseltamivir)

- they inhibit viral cleavage of sialic acid
- so they inhibit the release of newly formed viruses

12

sote of action for palivizumab

- binds to fusion (F) protein of RSV = outside the coating of the virus
- keeps the virus from attaching to and entering host cell i.e. reducing replication and spread of RSV

13

dosing and timing of palivizumab tx for RSV

- 15mg/kg IM monthly
- up to 5 doses during RSV season w/ 1st dose just prior to season
- kinetics: half-life = 13-27d (about the half-life of human IgG); onset w/in 48h

14

who should avoid contact w/ people receiving ribavirin and why?

- health care personnel (drug disperses in immediate bedside area after administration)
- prego women (teratogenic)
- adverse effects = headache, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, nausea, rash, dizziness, lacrimation, pharyngitis