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Flashcards in Cognitive Disorders Deck (20)
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1

only cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses BBB?

donepezil

2

donepezil

- for tx of Alzheimer's; cholinesterase inhibitor
- long 1/2 life = 1/d dosage
- s/e = N/V/D

3

rivastigmine

- tx for Alzheimer's (mild to moderate)
- s/e = N/V, headaches, anorexia
- must be given w/ food

4

galatamine

- mild to moderate Alzheimer's
- s/e = N/V/D, weight loss, anorexia

5

memantine

- mild Alzheimer's and vascular dementia
- removes NMDA toxicity = how it slows degeneration process
- s/e = dizziness, delusion, confusion, hallucination
- used in combo w/ cholinesterase inhibitors for advanced Alzheimer's

6

vitamin E supplements

- can slow/improve symptoms as prophylaxis
- use for pts at high risk for developing Alzheimer's
- increased risk of death for pts w/ coronary disease

7

frontotemporal dementia

- focal degeneration of frontal and temporal lobes
- problems w/ 5HT and DA systems; cholinergic system fine
***abnormal tau or TDP43 protein aggregation

8

what can't you use cholinesterase inhibitors to tx frontotemporal dementia?

- in FTD the cholinergic system is spare
- so cholinesterase inhibitors will do nothing but cause you problems w/ a system that is functioning normally to being w/

9

what would you use to tx frontotemporal dementia?

- SSRIs = sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine
- anti-psychotics as a last resort at low doses = quetiapine, olanzapine, aripiprazole

10

would bapineuzumab (beta-amyloid antibody) be effective in FTD tx?

- no b/c in FTD there are no beta-amyloid plaques; that's a characteristic of Alzheimer's
- in FTD the problem is tau proteins building up

11

Lewy body dementia

- Parkinson's
- tx w/ cholinesterase inhibitors = rivastigmine, donpenzil, galatamine

12

tx for REM sleep disorders

- clonazepam
- quetiapine

13

vascular dementia

- infarcts = chronic ischemia in periventricular areas
- usually from DM or lipid metabolism disorders
- tx w/ anti-HTN drugs = diuretics, ***ACE inhibitors***, beta-blockers
- manage DM w/ statins; could give anti-platelet drugs or Ca-channel blockers

14

drug-induced amnesia

- caused by date rape drug = rohypnol
- tx w/ midazolam, flunitrazepam

15

methylhenidate

- tx of ADHD
- inhibits reuptake of norepi and DA
- s/e = weight loss, decreased appetite, insomnia, addiction, mania

16

dextroamphetamine and lisdexamfetamine

- both for tx of ADHD (also narcolepsy)
- increase norepi and DA transmission in the brain
- s/e = MI, tachycardia, sudden cardiac arrest, seizures, anaphylaxis

17

atomoxetine

- can be used to tx ADHD
- selective norepi reuptake inhibitor; can increase norepi transmission at synapses in brain
- s/e = prolong QT interval, seizures, priapism, sudden cardiac death, angioedema

18

desipramine

- tx of depression and ADHD in kids
- blocks reuptake of norepi and serotonin in brain
- s/e = fatigue, dizziness, somnolence, sudden cardiac arrest, MI
- neuroleptic malignant syndrome = suicidal thoughts, hepatitis, jaundice

19

clonidine and guanfacine

- tx of ADHD
- centrally-acting alpha-2 receptor agonist
- guanfacine s/e = peeling of skin, xerostoma, bradyarrhythmias
- clonidine s/e = AV block, somnolence

20

bupropion

- tx for ADHD, smoking cessation, bipolar
- inhibits reuptake of norepi and DA
- s/e = agitation, arthralgia, arrhythmias, xerostomia, suicidal thoughts, mania