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Flashcards in Anxiety Disorders Deck (34):
1

How common are anxiety disorders?

6.6% for generalised anxiety disorder

2

What is the M:F for anxiety disorders in the UK?

1:2 M:F

3

Describe the mechanism for anxiety disorders

Normal reaction: Fear due to stimulus -> arousal -> fight or flight reaction

Anxiety causes unthreatening situations to trigger fear -> unnecessary reconditioning to fear harmless situations, leading to avoidant behaviours.

4

What 3 systems do we process events with? How does this tie in with anxiety?

Thoughts
Feelings
Behaviours

Understanding how they interact can help understand anxiety and aid treatment

5

What are the symptoms of anxiety?

Racing thoughts
Sympathetic NS arousal eg increased HR, sweating, dry mouth
Inability to concentrate
Cognitive bias

6

What is cognitive bias?

A mistake in reasoning/processing causing deviation from norm or rationality in judgement.

Can have attentional focus eg to threat, to illness.

Often maintains anxiety disorders

7

What can pts develop to prevent anxiety?

Safety behaviours

8

What are safety behaviours?

Behaviours that a pt develops to make a situation seem safer to them

9

What is the problem with safety behaviours?

Only help short term as the behaviour reinforces the belief that the situation is dangerous and that the behaviour is the only way to cope with that situation

10

What anxiety disorders are there?

-phobias
-panic disorders
-generalised anxiety disorder
-social anxiety disorder
-OCD
-body dysmorphic disorder
-PTSD

12

What is a phobia?

A marked fear of something (specific or simple) with marked avoidance of that object/situation

13

What do pts with phobias lack?

Ability to be rational about the perceived threat

14

What is a panic disorder?

Fear of ones own physiological/psychological reactions

15

What can accompany a panic disorder?

Agoraphobia

16

With a panic disorder, how do pts perceive physiological/psychological changes?

Signs of impending catastrophe

17

What can perpetuate the beliefs in panic disorder?

Avoidance of situations that trigger responses

18

Why can agoraphobia develop with panic disorders?

Pt begins to stay at home in order to avoid these situations and because they feel they have the most control over the environment

19

What does avoidance in a phobia perpetuate?

The phobia and pattern of avoidance

20

What does avoidance in a phobia perpetuate?

The phobia and pattern of avoidance

21

What are the 2 types of worrying?

Type 1 - Everyday worries that everyone gets about day to day things
Type 2 - worrying about worrying

22

What maintains the worrying in generalised anxiety disorder?

The belief that worrying is good and has got them where they are i.e. they become dependant on worrying

23

What demographic groups is generalised anxiety disorder common in?

High achievers
Healthcare professionals

24

What is social anxiety disorder?

Fear of negative evaluation by others

25

What does this fear in social anxiety disorder lead to?

Avoidance of feared situations, safety behaviours, and "post-mortem"-ing situations afterwards

26

What can perpetuate the situation in social anxiety disorder?

Avoidant behaviours of the pt draw attention to them, which is a situation they are afraid of

27

Define OCD

Anxiety disorder in which recurrent obsessional thoughts or compulsive acts which are invariably distressing to the patient

28

What are some common intrusive thoughts?

Being contaminated, causing harm, behaving inappropriately/against personal belief set

29

What are some common compulsions?

Washing
Checking (gas, lights etc)
Flicking switches
Ordering/aligning
Praying
Counting
Repeating words

30

What is body dysmorphic disorder?

A psychological disorder in which a person becomes obsessed with imaginary defects in their appearance

31

Define PTSD

A mental health condition that's triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it.

32

What symptoms do people with PTSD experience?

Flashbacks
Nightmares
Severe anxiety
Uncontrollable thoughts about the event
Difficulty adjusting/coping

33

What are the 3 main features of PTSD?

Re-experiencing
Avoidance
Hyperarousal

34

What are some common co-morbidities associated with PTSD?

Depression
Substance misuse
Other anxiety disorders
Eating disorders

35

How can PTSD be treated?

Psychotherapy - CBT and group therapy

Medication such as antidepressants