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Flashcards in Mood Disorders Deck (41):
1

What are the "mood disorders"?

Depression
Bipolar disorder
Persistent Mood disorder

2

What patterns can depression come in?

Single episode or recurrent episodes

3

What 3 types of symptoms can pts with depression get?

-Core
-Biological/Somatic
-Cognitive

4

What are the core symptoms of depression?

-Low mood for 2 weeks +
-Lack of energy
-Anhedonia

5

What are the biological/somatic symptoms of depression?

-Sleep changes
-Appetite/weight changes
-Diurnal variation in mood
-Psychomotor retardation
-Loss of libido

6

What are the cognitive symptoms of depression?

-Low self esteem
-Guilt/self blame
-Hopelessness
-Hypochondrial thoughts
-Poor concentration/attention
-Suicidal thoughts

7

What are the 4 types of depression wrt severity?

Mild, moderate, severe, and severe with psychotic symptoms

8

How is mild depression diagnosed?

2 core symptoms + 2 other. Pt able to function.

9

How is moderate depression diagnosed?

2 core symptoms + 3/4 other. Pts ability to function is affected.

10

How is severe depressions diagnosed?

3 core symptoms + at least 4 other. Pts ability to function is affected.

11

What is the lifetime prevalence of depression?

10-20%

12

What is the ration of M:F in depression?

1:2 M:F

13

How much more common is depression in people with long term conditions?

2-3x more common

14

What kind of hallucination is most common in psychosis with severe depression?

Auditory

15

What is post-natal depression?

Depression experienced by mothers usually 1-2 months post-partum (majority of cases are within a year of childbirth)

16

What % of mothers are affected by post-natal depression?

10-15%

17

Can post-natal depression affect partners/fathers?

Yes, although it is less common

18

In addition to symptoms of depression, what other symptoms does post-natal depression have?

-Difficulty bonding with baby
-Frightening thoughts e.g. about hurting the baby
-Feeling that they're unable to look after the baby

19

What therapies are there for post-natal depression?

-Self-help, often with family and freinds as support
-CBT
-Antidepressants

20

What is bipolar disorder according to ICD10?

Two or more episodes in which the patient's mood and activity levels are significantly disturbed, this disturbance consisting sometimes of hypomania or mania, and sometimes of depression.

21

What is hypomania?

State where mood is mildly elevated, pt is expansive, or the pt is irritable in mood. Increased activity, self esteem, sociability, sex drive, familiarity. Decreased need for sleep.

22

What is mania?

State where mood is leated, expansive, or irritable, increased energy/activity, agitation, pressure of speech, evidence of formal thought disorder, easily distracted, disinhibited, impaired judgement, and may experience psychotic symptoms.

23

What is persistent mood disorder?

Persistent and usually fluctuating disorders of mood in which the majority of the individual episodes are not sufficiently severe to warrant being described as hypomanic or mild depressive episodes.

24

What is cyclothymia?

A persistent mood disorder chracterised by mild periods of elation/depression (none of which severe enough for bipolar)

25

Who frequently gets cyclothymia?

Relatives of those with bipolar affective disorder

26

What is dysthymia?

A persistent mood disorder characterised by chronic depression of mood lastng severeal years or more (which is not sufficiently severe/prolonged to class as depression)

27

What is mixed affective state?

A mixture or rapid alternation of hypomania, mania, and depression

28

What are the different types of bipolar?

Bipolar 1 and Bipolar 2

29

What is bipolar 1?

1 or more manic episode or mixed +/- 1 depressive episode

30

What is bipolar 2?

At least 1 severe depressive and 1 hypomanic episode

31

Name some differential diagnoses for mood disorders?

Normal mood flux
Bereavement
PTSD
Dementia
Other organic brain disorders

32

Name some biological causes of mood disorders

Genetic
Physical illness
Mental Illness

33

Name some psychological causes of mood disorders

Childhood experiences
View of self
View of the world
Personality traits

34

Name some social causes of mood disorders

Work/(un)employment
Housing
Finance
Relationships
Support

35

What biological treatments are there for mood disorders?

Pharmacological treatments
ECT
TMS
tDCS

36

What is ECT licensed for in the UK?

Moderate/Severe depression (treatment resistant or life threatening)

37

What is TMS and what is it licensed for in the UK?

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Approved by NICE but limited availability in UK for treatment of severe depression

38

What is tDCS? What is it licensed for?

Transcranial direct current stimulation

Severe depression

39

What psychological treatments are there available for mood disorders?

Education about condition
CBT
IPT
Mindfulness

40

What is IPT?

Interpersonal therapy - psychotherapy that focuses on the pt and their relationships with others

41

What social treatments are there for mood disorders?

Targeted social interventions
Behavioural activation