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Flashcards in Aphasias Deck (18):
1

What is aphasia?

A disturbance in language (not speech) as a result of brain damage

2

List 3 categories of causes of aphasias, giving specific examples

Acute onset (stroke, penetrating head injury, surgical resection)
Insidious onset/progressive (dementia, neoplastic change)
Paroxysmal/episodic (focal seizures, migraine)

3

Describe the lateralisation of language

The left hemisphere is dominant for language in ~95% of right handers and 70% of left handers

4

What is the role of the right hemisphere in language?

Non-propositional speech
Prosody
Paralinguistic aspects of speech

5

Describe the lateralisation of visuospatial function

The right hemisphere is dominant for visuospatial function

6

What cortical regions does the superior division of the middle cerebral artery supply?

Sensorimotor cortex
Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

7

What cortical regions does the inferior division of the middle cerebral artery supply?

Temporoparietal cortex
Visual tracts

8

Describe the location and predominant impairments of a Broca's aphasia

Anterior lesion affecting Broca's area
Non-fluent aphasia
Loss of grammatical (sequential) structure
Fluent jargonistic language output (neologisms and paraphasic errors e.g. boap for boat)
Impaired comprehension
Right quadrantanopsia

9

Describe the location and predominant impairments of a Wernicke's aphasia

Posterior lesion affecting Wernicke's area
Fluent aphasia
Impaired selection of content
Non-fluent, highly effortful language output
Telegrammatic speech
Right face and arm weakness

10

Describe the two aspects of the language system

Production (producing appropriate output sequences, putting words together in a meaningful way making appropriate use of grammar and context)
Selection (choosing appropriate content, picking the right word for the object)

11

Which language structures are supplied by the superior division of the middle cerebral artery?

Broca's area (composed of pars triangularis and pars opercularis)

12

Which language structures are contained within the temporoparietal association neocortex?

Wernicke's area
Angular gyrus
Supramarginal gyrus

13

What results from a severing of the arcuate fasciculus?

Conduction aphasia

14

What are the defining features of a conduction aphasia?

Fluent aphasia, but more meaningful than Wernicke's
Relatively intact auditory comprehension
Poor repetition of words

15

What are the defining features of a transcortical motor aphasia?

Non-fluent aphasia
Muteness at most severe
Repetition preserved

16

What are the 2 main mechanisms of language recovery?

Contralateral transfer (better recovery)
Ipsilateral reorganisation

17

Under what circumstances does contralateral transfer of language function tend to occur?

Following early hemispherectomy, in neonatal infarction or with major developmental abnormalities

18

Under what circumstances does ipsilateral reorganisation of language function tend to occur?

With a focal developmental abnormality or in adult-onset stroke