Drug Dependence and Antidepressants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Drug Dependence and Antidepressants Deck (29):
1

How do cocaine and methamphetamine differ?

In their selectivity for receptors in the CNS and their affinity

2

What do the cortical areas/circuits involved in drug abuse and addiction control?

Motivation/drive
Memory/learning
Reward/salience
Inhibitory control

3

What is the biochemical effect of drugs of dependence?

Increase dopamine in the nucleus accumbens

4

What effect does amphetamine have in the CNS?

Releases DA, 5HT and NA

5

What is the mechanism of dependence in amphetamine use?

Dopaminergic actions in nucleus accumbens

6

What effect does MDMA have in the CNS?

Releases DA and 5HT

7

What physiological effect of MDMA is of most concern in terms of its potential to cause fatalities?

Disrupted thermoregulation (causing chills and sweating, can lead to dehydration and death)

8

What is the characteristic effect of LSD use?

Confusion of sensory modalities leading to visual, auditory and tactile hallucinations

9

For which drugs of dependence does tolerance occur?

LSD

10

Where does LSD act and what kind of activity does it have?

Agonist at 5HT-2 autoreceptors on neurones in raphe nuclei

11

To what drug class does caffeine belong?

Methylxanthine

12

List the 2 pharmacological actions of caffeine

Adenosine antagonist
PDE inhibitor

13

List 3 actions of ethanol on the CNS

Inhibits Ca2+ channel opening
Enhances GABA action via GABA-A receptors
Inhibits glutamate receptors (NMDA-type channel)

14

What is the effect of flumazenil?

Blocks the action of ethanol on GABA-A receptors

15

List 5 neurological signs of ethanol dependence

Tremor
Agitation
Hyperactive reflexes
Convulsions
Delirium

16

List 5 physical signs of ethanol dependence

Anorexia
Vomiting
Postural hypotension
Sweating
Hyperpyrexia (extremely high fever)

17

What class of receptors are cannabinoid receptors?

GPCRs

18

What is the name of the endogenous chemical that activates cannibinoid receptors?

Anandamide

19

List 4 peripheral effects of THC

Tachycardia
Vasodilation
Reduced intraocular pressure
Bronchodilation

20

List 2 1st generation classes of antidepressants

TCAs
MAOIs

21

List 2 2nd generation classes of antidepressants

SSRIs
SSNRIs

22

List 2 3rd generation classes of antidepressants

Novel monoaminergic drugs
Non-monoaminergic drugs

23

List 3 pharmacological actions of TCAs

Inhibit neuronal uptake of NA and 5HT
Antagonise a-adrenoceptors, muscarinic receptors, histamine receptors and 5HT receptors
Quinidine-like membrane stabilising action at very high concentrations

24

List 4 drawbacks of using TCAs

Poor selectivity
Clinical effect takes weeks to develop
Narrow therapeutic window
Long(ish) half life meaning gradual accumulation may occur, causing slowly developing side effects

25

What effect do MAOIs have on the CNS?

Increase levels of 5HT, NA and DA

26

List 2 irreversible MAOIs

Phenelzine
Tranylcypromine

27

What is the "cheese reaction"?

Interaction between irreversible MAOIs and tyramine (in many foods including cheese, red wine, chocolate, bananas) causing hypertensive crisis

28

Name a reversible MAOI. What MAO subtype is it selective for?

Moclobemide, selective MAO A

29

List 4 side effects of reversible MAOIs

Postural hypotension
Dizziness
Nausea
Insomnia