Flashcards in The Frontal Lobes and Executive Function Deck (16):
What % of brain volume is made up by the frontal lobe?
Name 3 ways the brain can be subdivided
Functional properties (e.g. primary, secondary, association areas)
What is "executive function"?
Inter-related processes responsible for goal directed, purposeful behaviour
Includes emotional and social behaviour as well as cognition
What kind of functions is the dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex responsible for?
Traditional "executive" functions:
Planning and organising
Flexibly maintaining or shifting set
Which artery supplies the dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex?
Which artery supplies the medial pre-frontal cortex?
Which arteries supply the orbitofrontal pre-frontal cortex?
Anterior cerebral, middle cerebral
What kind of functions is the medial pre-frontal cortex responsible for?
Akinetic mutism (at most extreme)
What kind of functions is the orbitofrontal pre-frontal cortex responsible for?
Highly connected to limbic areas
Responsible for emotional, cognitive, social inhibition
What kind of defects may occur in a lesion of the orbitofrontal pre-frontal cortex?
Impulsivity (making decisions faster, making more errors)
How are dorsolateral, medial, and orbitofrontal lesions formally assessed?
Neuropsychological testing is more sensitive to dorsolateral lesions
Clinical judgment and history traking are more useful for medial and orbitofrontal lesions
List some common causes of executive dysfunction
Closed head injury
Stroke (middle and anterior cerebral arteries, anterior communicating artery)
Psychiatric conditions (schizophrenia, mania)
Dementias (fronto-temporal, AD, HD)
Inflammatory conditions (MS, encephalitis)
Describe the development of the frontal lobe
Last area of the brain to develop
One of the first to degenerate in the aging process
Dynamic process (involving positive and negative processes, i.e. neuronal proliferation and pruning)
List 6 positive symptoms of executive dysfunction
List 6 negative symptoms of executive dysfunction
Lack of concern
Failure to complete tasks
Lack of initiation