The Frontal Lobes and Executive Function Flashcards Preview

Hannah's Neuro > The Frontal Lobes and Executive Function > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Frontal Lobes and Executive Function Deck (16):
1

What % of brain volume is made up by the frontal lobe?

30%

2

Name 3 ways the brain can be subdivided

Cytoarchitecture
Thalamic connections
Functional properties (e.g. primary, secondary, association areas)

3

What is "executive function"?

Inter-related processes responsible for goal directed, purposeful behaviour
Includes emotional and social behaviour as well as cognition

4

What kind of functions is the dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex responsible for?

Traditional "executive" functions:
Working memory
Response selection
Planning and organising
Hypothesis generation
Flexibly maintaining or shifting set
Insight
Moral judgment

5

Which artery supplies the dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex?

Middle cerebral

6

Which artery supplies the medial pre-frontal cortex?

Anterior cerebral

7

Which arteries supply the orbitofrontal pre-frontal cortex?

Anterior cerebral, middle cerebral

8

What kind of functions is the medial pre-frontal cortex responsible for?

Emotional-motivational interface:
Akinetic mutism (at most extreme)
Apathy
Initiative
Indifference

9

What kind of functions is the orbitofrontal pre-frontal cortex responsible for?

Highly connected to limbic areas
Responsible for emotional, cognitive, social inhibition

10

What kind of defects may occur in a lesion of the orbitofrontal pre-frontal cortex?

Impulsivity (making decisions faster, making more errors)

11

How are dorsolateral, medial, and orbitofrontal lesions formally assessed?

Neuropsychological testing is more sensitive to dorsolateral lesions
Clinical judgment and history traking are more useful for medial and orbitofrontal lesions

12

List some common causes of executive dysfunction

Closed head injury
Stroke (middle and anterior cerebral arteries, anterior communicating artery)
Psychiatric conditions (schizophrenia, mania)
Dementias (fronto-temporal, AD, HD)
Focal lesions
Inflammatory conditions (MS, encephalitis)
Developmental (autism)

13

Describe the development of the frontal lobe

Last area of the brain to develop
One of the first to degenerate in the aging process
Dynamic process (involving positive and negative processes, i.e. neuronal proliferation and pruning)

14

List 6 positive symptoms of executive dysfunction

Distractability
Social disinhibition
Emotional instability
Perseveration
Impulsivity
Hypergraphia

15

List 6 negative symptoms of executive dysfunction

Lack of concern
Restricted emotion
Deficient empathy
Failure to complete tasks
Lack of initiation

16

Distinguish between frontal lobe dysfunction and executive dysfunction

The prefrontal cortex acts as a "coordinator" of executive functioning
Executive function involves an entire executive system and dysfunction may occur due to disruption at any level (e.g. subcortical)