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Flashcards in Stroke Deck (11):
1

What are the 3 pathological processes involved in stroke and what % of strokes do they account for?

Infarction (75%)
Haemorrhage (20%)
Subarachnoid haemorrhage (5%)

2

List 8 risk factors for cerebral infarction

Ageing
Hypertension
Cardiac disease (e.g. AF)
Hyperlipidaemia
Diabetes mellitus
Hypercoagulable states (e.g. antiphospholipid antibody syndrome)
Smoking
Obesity

3

What imaging modality is best for the identification of recent cerebral infarcts?

MRI

4

List 7 causes of intracerebral haemorrhage

Hypertensive small vessel disease
Congophilic (amyloid) angiopathy
Blood disorders
Tumour
Vasculitis
Vascular malformation
Drugs (e.g. certain illicit drugs)

5

What is the characteristic feature of hypertensive haemorrhage?

Small vessel disease (hyaline arteriolosclerosis)

6

List 4 common sites of hypertensive haemorrhage

Basal ganglia/thalamus
Lobar white matter
Cerebellum
Pons

7

Where is amyloid deposited in cerebral amyloid angiopathy? What does this confer an increased risk of?

In the walls of the superficial supratentorial blood vessels
Increased risk of superficial haemorrhages (often multiple)

8

List 3 non-traumatic causes of subarachnoid haemorrhage

Rupture of saccular aneurysm
Rupture of other types of aneurysms (e.g. mycotic, atherosclerotic)
Extension of intracerebral haemorrhage

9

List 7 risk factors for developing a saccular aneurysm

Sex and age (females more likely)
Polycystic kidney disease
Coarctation of aorta
Type III collagen deficiency
Hypertension
Smoking
Alcohol

10

What are the 3 most common sites for saccular aneurysms?

Bi/trifurcation of MCA (33%)
ACA and ACommA (33%)
Junction of ICA and PCommA (20%)

11

List 4 complications of aneurysm rupture

Subarachnoid haemorrhage (+/- intraparenchymal)
Cerebral oedema and raised ICP
Vasospasm and infarction
Ventriclar obstruction (hydrocephalus)