Flashcards in Aprroaches Deck (147):
What does the central nervous system consists of
The brain and the spinal cord.
What is the brain involved in ?
How come some parts of the brain are concerned with vital functioning ?
Psychological processes and ensures life is maintained.
As some parts are older and in evolutionary terms. For example the brain stem is responsible for regulating breathing and heartbeat.
What is the diencephalon
Sits above the brain and contains the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
Thalamus: heavily involved in relaying info between the cortex and the brain stem. It contributes in perception, attention, timing and movement.
Hypothalamus: controls many autonomic functions such as hunger thirst body temp and sexual activity.
What is the nervous system divided into
Central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
Who was Wundt and what did he establish
He established the first psychology lab in 1875
Created the technique of introspection to gain insight into how mental processes work. People were trained to report in detail their inner experiences when presented with a stimulus such as a problem to solve or something to be memorised.
What were the features of introspection
- participants to be objective
- participants reflected on feelings sensations and images
- ask people to break down their thoughts into separate elements.
Why may Wundts methods of introspection be criticised
They are unreliable as they rely on primarily on non observable responses. Individuals can comment of experience but this doesn't give a reliable,e understanding of unobservable constructs eg memory and perception. The results were not reliably reproducible by other researches.
What were the scientific approach to psychology based on
- behaviour has a cause
- we should be able to predict how humans behave
What scientific methods are used in psychology
Investigator methods are objective as researcher do not let preconceived ideas or biases influence the date and systematic because experiments are carried out in a orderly way and replicable.
Measurements and recordings of empirical data are carried out accurately and with due to consideration from the possible influence of factors on the results are obtained
The research can be repeated by others to determine whether the same results are obtained. If there not replicable it's not reliable.
What are strengths of the scientific approach.
- objective and systematic methods of observation, knowledge acquired is more than just a passive acceptance of facts
- if scientific theories don't fit the facts they can be redefined or abounded as studies are repeated all the time.
What are limitation of the scientific approach
- highly controlled conditions in most experiments tell us little how people act in natural environments
- most of the subject matters of psychology are unobservable and can't be measured with 100 % accuracy
What are the assumptions of the behaviourist approach
People behaviour due to what they have learnt
People learn in the same way as animals as a result of stimulus and response
- leaning is a result of reinforcement and punishment
- behaviour can be explained by simply looking at the component parts of learning
What are the applications of the behaviourist approach
-behaviour modification for behavioural problems
-behaviour therapy for phobia and other mental health disorders
What is the evaluation of the behaviourist approach
-mechanistic approach and does not allow for consciousness or subjective experience
- does not acknowledge free will
- based on animal research which can be questioned
- treatments of psychological disorders rely on removal symptoms not underlying causes
- some people would regard behaviour control as unethical.
What is the definition iron of learning
Learning is a permanent chance in behaviour due to the past experience
What is classical conditioning
Who was the founder and how did his experiment help him come to his conclusion.
Learning through simple association. Reflex of involuntary actions are conditioned to stimuli with which they are not normally associated with.
Experimenting with the salivary glands of dogs. During his research he noticed that the dogs that were about to be fed would start to salivate just as one of his assistants entered the lab with food. The dogs learnt to associate the man with the food.
Pavlov concluded they had learned to associate the stimuli (the man) with the response ( salivation).
He set up and experiment where the dogs food was presented after the sound of a bell. The two stimuli's the food and the bell.
The response is always salivation. The difference was what caused salivation.
After just a few trails the dog started to salivate when they heard the sound and before the food was present.
What was previously an unlearned (unconditioned) response to the food, salivation, had become learned (conditioned) response to the bell. Classical condition is an unconscious process.
What are the basica laws of how operebt conditioning works
When is their complete association
Reinforcement, strengthening of the learning in classical conditioning, occurs by repeating the connection between the unconditioned and the conditioned stimuli.
When the conditioned stimuli produces the conditioned response
What is stimulus generalisation in terms of the behaviourist approach
If a stimuli has characteristics close to the conditioned stimulus then the association would still be made ( Changing the tone of pitch of the bell in pavlovs study)
What is stimulus discrimination in terms of the behaviourist approach
At some point their has to be a cut off point where the association will not be made and the stimulus generalisation will not occur. It happens when the characteristic of the conditioned stimulus and object become to different to generalise
What is time contiguity in terms of the behaviourist approach
The association only occurs if the unconditioned stimulus and neutral stimulus are presented at the same time or around the same time. If the time lapse is to great the association will not be made.
What did Watson and rayner 1920 find out about classical conditioning
Little Albert- 11 month old Infact was used to demonstrate how phobia could be induced using classical conditioning.
They presented a white Ray to Albert who was not afraid of it. As Albert reached toward the fat a loud noise was sounded behind him. Albert began to cry apparently frightened by the noise. This procedure was repeated on 6 occasions. The rat was then presented alone, when Albert saw the rat he was frightened and pulled away form it.
Watson and Reyner had conditioned Albert to respond with fear to something he had previously found attractive. Albert was then afraid of other fury white object such as father Christmas's mask. This shows the fear has generalised from the original object to other similar ones.
What is operant conditioning
Deals with the way in which voluntary behaviours are learned, it's works on the principle of learning by consequence. There are three ways it can happen:
- positive reinforcement: behaviour is more likely to occur because of positive consequences
- negative reinforcement: a behaviour is likely to occur because of avoidance of negative consequences
- punishment: less likely to reoccur because of negative consequences
What did Thorndike produce after his study on cats
Argued that some responded were ,earned not because they were associated with a stimulus but because they produced pleasant consequences.
Thorndike produced this 'law and effect' a response will follow a stimulus if it is associated in the organisms mind with a satisfying state of affair. Any association that is not satisfying is not repeated.
He concluded this after he put cats in a puzzle box, they learnt the escape by pulling on string, here they were rewarded with freedom
What was the study of skinners rats in operant conditioning
Similar to Thorndike, Skinner put rats in a puzzle box
Positive reinforcement: pull the lever get a food pellet
Punishment: electrical shocks from the floor
Negative reinforcement: avoiding electrical shocks.
The rats learn that when they pulled the lever it would give them a food pellet so they kept doing so. Pressing the lever becomes a learnt behaviour and they rat is rewarded every time this is called continuous reinforcement
What was skinners ABC model
Skinners development in describing the process involved in operant conditioning
1.ANTECEDENTS what happens prior to a behaviour being performed.
3. CONSEQUENCES what happens after the operant.
Why can classical and operant condition be credited
- behaviourist psychologists use scientific methods- objective - highly replicable which allows researchers to check credibility.
-useful applications- eg- classical conditioning can be used to treat phobias
Why can classical and operant conditioning be criticised
- ignored the role of genes and neurotransmitters in determining behaviour
- fail to consider the influence of thought and cognitive processes are not observable.
- to narrow and ignored the subjective experience of humans
- spontaneous behaviour can not easily be explained by the behaviourist principles of operant and classical conditioning
- animal research- difference in complexity of humans and animals behaviour. More ethical to test on animals.
What are the basic assumption of the social learning theory (behaviourist approaches cousin)
- learnt from the environments. Does not regard genetics as an influence on behaviour
- behaviour is learnt from observing others and the reinforcement or punishment they receive
What is the procedure and evaluation of Banduras study on the bobo doll
The study looked at if children would copy the behaviour of the adult model beating a bobo doll if they watched a video
Procedure: 36 males 36 females ages 3-5. There were 2 adults one male and one female.
8 experiments groups ( 6 ps each) half observed aggressive behaviour and half observed none aggressive behaviour.
Groups were then divided by gender and whether the models were the same sex.
Evaluation: individual differences
Aggressive behaviour- showed more aggression in boys but this may be because boys have more testosterone in their hormones - biology explaining the difference in behaviour
-operationalising aggression is subjective what is aggressive to one may not be aggressive to another like makes it lack reliably
- lab experiment- artificial environment- lacks ecological validity
-extraneous variables- effect of parent cause and effect
What is meant by imitation, identification, modelling, vicarious reinforcement in terms of the social learning theory
Imitation- observing behaviour from a role model and copying it
Identification- copying someone because you think you are similar or wish to be like them. Similar in terms of-gender, ethnicity etc
Modelling- someone is influential on an individual in some way so the individual imitates the behaviour
Vicarious reinforcement- describes the reinforcement the observer sees he model receiving. The person learns by the consequences of others.
What 4 meditational processes are suggested by Bandura
Attention: for a behaviour to be imitated we have to pay attention
Retention: a memory of the behaviour is formed before it is performed
Reproduction : limited to the behaviour we can imitate due to our physical abilities
Motivation : the rewards and punishments of a behaviour will be considered by the observer
What was Bandura and Walters follow up study from the bobo doll and what did it show
Follow up study. 3 conditions
1. Saw the model rewarded for aggressive behaviour
3. No consequences
The levels of initiation was highest in condition one and lowest in condition 2.
This shows the importance of vicarious reinforcement in deterring the likelihood of imitation
How can the social learning theory be criticised
- it does not go far enough in terms of the cognitive approach
-not a full explanation for all behaviour. There is no apparent role model in a persons life to imitate a given behaviour
- a lot of the sample is children- still learning right from wrong
How can the social learning theory be credited
-takes thought process into account and acknowledges the role that they play in deciding if a behaviour is imitated or not
- more complex understanding of human behaviour
- less determinist than traditional behaviourism
What is the cerebellum
What are the four lobes and their functions
Located at the back of the brain. Involved in coordinating motor skills and balance.
What is the cerebrum
It is the largest part of the brain and is further divided into four lobes with different primary functions.
1. Frontal lobe- involved in attention and thought , voluntary and movement, decision making and language.
2. Occipital cortex- receives projection from the retina. Encodes visual info - colours, orientation and motion. They process what objects are.
3. Parietal lobe- builds a picture of the world allows us to coordinate our movements in response to the objects in our environment.
4. Temporal lobes- helps with perception, gave recognition, object recognition, memory and understanding language
What is the spinal cord
Facilities the transferral of messages to and from the brain to the peripheral nervous system. This allows the brain to monitor and regulate bodily processes such as digestion and coordinate voluntary movement. The spinal cord circuits of nerve cells that are involved in reflex reactions without direct involvement of the brain.
What is the peripheral nervous system and its two function
Transmits messages from the brain to the whole of the body. It has two divisions the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
What does the somatic nervous system do
A division of the peripheral nervous system
Made up of 12 pairs of cranial nerves that emerge from the underside of the brain and 31 pairs of spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord. These include sensory and motor neurones these transmit and receive messages from the senses such as visual information from the eyes and auditory from the ears. Motor neurones direct muscles to react and move.
What is the autonomic nervous system
A division of the peripheral nervous system
Helps transmit and receive information from the organs and is further divided into the sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic branch increases activity while the parasympathetic branch conserves resources by decreasing or maintaining activity. Both of these systems control the same group of body functions but they have opposite effects on the function that they regulate.
Define motor neurones
Carry signals form the central nervous system to effectors. These are organs such as muscles or glands. A motor Neuton may cause a muscle to contract or a gland to release a hormone.
Axons of motor neurones may be very long.
Sometimes referred to as multipolar as they send and receive messages from many sources.
Define a sensory neurone
Carry signals from receptors to the spinal cord and brain. Receptors In the skin may send a message via a relay neurone to a motor neurone which cause our hand to move away from something hot.
Unipolar neurones as they transmit messages
What are relay neurones
Sometimes called interneurones as they carry messages from one part of the nervous system to another. They connect sensory and motor neurones.
They are multipolar as they send and receive messages from multiple sources
What is the process of the synaptic transmission
Process of passing messages from one neurone to another. The dendrites receive the spinal. And eclectic nerve impulse then travels down the neurone and promotes the release of neurotransmitters at the pre synaptic terminal. Neurotransmitters are the chemicals in the brain released into the synaptic fluid in the synapse. The synapse is a gap between neurones. These neurotransmitters then bind with receptors on the post synaptic neurone which leads to an ion channel opening up, ion flows through the membrane into the neurone which may cause potential dendrites.
What is the excitatory potentials
What are inhibitory potentials
They make it more likely for the neurone to fire so if a synapse is more likely to cause the post synaptic neurone to fire then it is likely called an excitatory synapse.
inhibitory potentials make the neurone less likely to fire so if the message is likely to stop at the post synaptic neurone then it's called and inhibitory synapse.
What is the function of the endocrine system
Made up of structures called glands. These secrete hormones which send chemical messages around the body via the bloodstream or circulatory system.
Adrenaline- a hormone secreted by the adrenal grands that increase blood circulation, breathing and carbohydrates, metabolism and prepares muscles for exertion.
Hormone- a regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood to stimulate specific cells or tissues into action.
Gland- an organ in human or animal body which secretes particular chemical substances for use in the body or for discharge into the surroundings.
Endocrine system- refers to a collection of glands of an organism that sends hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs.
Name 2 endocrine glands, the hormones they release and the effects
Adrenal medulla- releases- adrenaline and noradrenaline- this effects the fight or flight response, increased heart rate and blood flow to brain and muscles, realise of stored glucose and fats for use in fight or flight response.
Testes- hormones release- testosterone- effects- development of secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. Promote muscle mass and muscle growth
What is the 'Master gland' of the body
- pituitary gland
Known as the master gland as many of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland control the secretion of the other endocrine glands, rather than having a direct effect of cells and tissues of the body. It is located in the cranial cavity, just below he hypothalamus to which is it directly connected
What is the pituitary divided into
An anterior and posterior portion. These are distinguished by the hormones they release.
Name one anterior pituitary hormone and their effect and one posterior pituitary and their effect
Anterior- growth hormone. Effect- general promotion of cell growth and multiplication in the body.
Posterior- oxytocin- important in promoting uterine contractions in child birth and lactation after birth.
What role does the endocrine system have
Vital role to play in the internal physiological regulation of the body. It works closely with the autonomic nervous system in this regard.
What both fight or flight response
The body's physiological reaction to threat or danger involves activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) cortex partway and the sympathetic- adrenal medullary (SAM) system which is designed to provide energy and arousal for response to threat and danger.
What does HPA and SAM activation result in
High blood levels of glucose and fats such as triglycerides, along with raised heart rate and blood pressure.
How has the fight or flight response evolved
However what is the problem for humans
As it helps organisms survive.
Problem- many of the stressors we now face cannot be solved through activation of fight or flight response. For example major life stresses such as relationships, exams still activate the the HPA and SAM system. In some respect this response to stress has become maladaptive. This is an example of evolutionary or genome lag where our genes have not kept up with the changes in our environment.
What does the appraisal of the fight or flight response depend on
What are the key structures in the brain.
Upon the sensory processing system such as vision and hearing and the stored memory of previous encounters within the situation.
- higher cortical centres and the parts of the limbic system , especially those involved with emotional memory's such as the amygdala and hippocampus. If the situation is appraised as dangerous the hypothalamus at the base of the brain is alerted.
The hypothalamus controls two major systems that have central roles in the bodily arousal- the HPA and SAM
Where is he pituitary gland
What is the key pituitary stress hormone
Sits beneath the brain connected to the hypothalamus by a short stalk.
What happens in the SAM pathway
Part of the autonomic nervous system that controls our internal organs.
In a stressful situation the hypothalamus is instructed to stimulate the adrenocorticotrophic release from the pituitary. This activates the SNS centres in the brain stem. This results in the increased release of adrenaline and noradrenaline in the blood stream.
How does activation of the SNS effect the body
SNS itself has direct connections to the heart and activation speeds up heart rate and raises blood pressure. These affects are increased and sustained by the release of adrenaline and noradrenaline from the adrenal medulla via SAM pathway. The end result is that oxygen is rapidly pumped to the muscles of the Skelton, allowing for increase in physical activity.
What can long term raised levels of sugar and fats in the blood stream lead to
Furring up and narrowing of blood on d vessels known as atherosclerosis
How can the fight or flight response be evaluated
- tend and befriend response - Taylor et al- suggests that for females behavioural responses to stress are more characterised by a pattern of tend and befriend than fight or flight. This involved protecting themselves and their young thought neutering behaviour (tend) and forming protective alliances with other women (befriend). Women may have completely different systems for coping with stress because heir responses evolved in the context of being the primary caregiver.
What is the job of the neurones
Neurones must transmit information both within the neurone and from one neutron to another. They dendrites of the neurone receive information from sensory receptors, this information is then passed down to the cell body and down the axon. Once the info had arrived at the axon it travels down its length in he form of an electrical signal known as action potential.
What are the assumptions of the cognitive approach
- the human brain is an information processing device that operates in an organised and systematic way
- events occurring with the person (cognitive processes) are able to be studied if behaviour is to be understood
- include perception, thinking, memory, attention and language
- the way that concepts are formed is critical
- behaviour studied using scientific methods
- a reductionist approach
- a deterministic approach ( does not accept free will)
What are the application of the cognitive theory
- cognitive therapies may help in the treatments of disorders such as phobias depression and eating disorders
- theories of cognitive development have been highly influential in areas of educational theory.
- understanding eye witnessing testimony and assessing the reliability of memories
How can the cognitive approach be evaluated
-does not allow for the irrational, emotional part of human behaviour
- no single theory links the areas of cognitive study into an identifiable framework
- using scientific methods leaves it open to criticisms of artificiality
- does not allow for the existence of free will
- some psychologists would question the assumption of reductionism
-not all mental processes are easy to study using cognitive methods.
What does cognitive psychology focus on
How is this different to the behaviourist approach
How people perceive, store, manipulate and interpret informations
Cognitive psychology= input=process=output
- unlike the behaviourist, cognitive psychologists believe it is necessary to look at internal mental processes that occur between the stimulus and response in order to understand behaviour.
What does much of cognitive psychology use
An information processing model whereby information received through the sedans is processed by various systems in the brain.
Believes what goes on in the brain is often explained using computer metaphors such as encoding processing and retrieval.
What does the cognitive approach recognise about mental processes
That they can not be studied directly so much be studied indirectly by inferring what goes on as a result of measuring behaviour. This process of interference is important as there are often times when we are unaware of our thoughts and mental processes.
Give a study where Cognitive phenomenal such as inattentional blindness is shown
Simon and Chabris 1999
Participants were asked to count how many passes were made between 3 people in white shirts during this a gorilla ran across the pitch. Participants who watched missed the gorilla as if it was invisible. The experiment reveals how we are missing a lot of what goes on around us and we have no idea how much we are missing.
What is the role of schemas (4 marks)
A schema is a collection of ideas about a person or situation formed through the experience which helps the individual to understand and predict the world around them.
Schemas are cognitive framework that help organise and interpret information and provide expectation of how we behave in different situations. They guide our attention and recall. We tend to record information that is schema consistent so schemas become self reinforcing. Schemas are different for everyone they are based on our own personal experience. So they way we see the world is different to how everyone else sees it
What are the positives and limitations of schemas
Useful as they allow us to take shortcuts when interpreting the huge amount of information we have to deal with on a daily basis
Schema cause us to exclude anything that does not conform to our established ideas about the world, instead focusing on the things that confirm our late existing beliefs.
What does barkers war of the ghost study tell us about schemas
War of the ghost study: aim- to investigate whether people's memory of a story is effected by previous knowledge and the extent to which memory is reconstructive.
- ps heard a story and reproduced it over a short time period and then repeatedly over a period of months and years.
Result- ps remembered the main ideas of the story but changed unfamiliar elements to make sense of the story.
This confirms the schema theory- however it was a lab experiment so it may lack ecological validity.
Ps did not receive standardised instructions some of the memory was distributed so this led to guessing.
What is the role of theoretical and computer models
Can be used to make inferences about mental processes.
Cognitive psychologists use theoretical models as it supports a scientific approach to enquiry and testing. By taking a behaviour and looking at the thought processes that happen 'behind the scenes' cognitive psychologists will often describe the prices in a series of distinct steps.
The use of models mean that the components can be tested individually and examined in detail. If the date from the experiment can not be fitted with the model it can be adjusted. It also means different areas of the brain and can be associated with different tasks.
What is a theoretical model
Models such as the WMM and the MSM are simplified representatives based on current research evidence. Represented by boxes and arrows that indicate cause and effect or the stages of a particular mental process
What are computer models
Using a computer analogy, info is in putted thought the senses, encoded into memory and then combined with previously stored information to complete a task.
What is a strength of the cognitive approach
It has been applied to may other areas of psychology. Eg in Social psychology- research in social cognition has helped psychologists better understand how we form impression of other people as well as the errors and biases that influence our interpretation of the causes of their behaviour.
It has been used to examples how much of the dysfunctional behaviour can be traced back to faulty cognition so this informs treatments- eg- use of cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of depression.
What is cognitive behavioural therapy
Works for minor depression, where there is a natural cause. Focuses on curing the symptoms by trying to solve the root of the problem.
How is can the cognitive approach be criticised negatively
The use of lab experiment makes the research lack ecological validity as the thought process measures could be argued to be artificial due to the context and task performed. This means the approach lacks explanatory power as the findings may be invalid. This means it will also lack credibility and the research can be flawed.
Use of models can be seeing as over simplifying compleat processes
Comprising people to computers- seeing people as mechanistic and lacking free will. Humans differ from computers as we have morals and we care for people.
What is the emergence of cognitive neuroscience
This approach brings together the brain scanning technologies used by biological psychologists with the study of cognitive processes such as memory and attention. Therefor it is the scientific stud of neurological structures, mechanisms, process and chemistry that are responsible for cognitive processes.
Name in study that uses brain scanning techniques in the topic of memory
Richard Davidson- " you can train your brain to be happy"
Give an example of research that has identified the neurological structure responsible for a behaviour.
Using FMRI scan on the brains of monks who spent up to 50,000 hours practicing meditation. Richard Davidson found that meditating increased activity in a region in the brain associated with joy. Even the control group saw changes in their brain activation "you can improve your ability to be happy like you can improve you tennis backhand"
Who do cognitive neuroscientist normally study
Individuals and patients who have experienced Brian damage from trauma eg a stroke. The brain injuries are mapped using PET scans and FMRI. Patients are asked to complete cognitive tasks while scanning is taking place so the brain can be seen in action. These are used to make inference about how cognitive processes normally function.
What is double dissociation
Occurs when two patients show a mirror image of impairment eg- person 1 can do task A but not task B and person 2 can do task B and not task A. This was demonstrated in memory research.
Eg- Warrington and shallice -
KF who had a very poor short term memory with a digit span of 2 but fully functioning LTM. KF had a sustained damage to the left parietal occipital lobe of his brain in a moto cycle accident.
HM had a undergone surgery epilepsy in which his hippocampus was removed.HM was unable to put information into his LTM after his surgery and was sentenced to living in the present. His STM was completely normal.
This concludes that long term and short term memory are in different areas of the brain
Outline one limitation of using case studies in psychological research
Case studies are narrow and can't be generalise to others. They can't be replicated on other people because of the difference in individuals making them lack credibility and reliability.
Outline one strength of the cognitive approach using brain scanning techniques.
It re enforces the idea that psychology is a science. Scientific methods make the research reliable and highly valid.
Can you think of a limitation of cognitive neuroscience
The idea of interference, we are still making interferences from the scientific technique as they have never proven
What are the assumptions of the biological approach
- views human beings as biological organisms and so provides biological explanations of all aspects of psychological functioning.
- all behaviour is effected by genetics
- believe that behaviour evolves in the same way as physical characteristics through the process of evolutionary
- behaviour is influenced by the central nervous system. Brain is the main focus on explaining behaviour
- emphasis on neurotransmitters and hormones being related to human behaviour
What is the application of the biological approach
- modern brain scanning are helping map the brain and to identify the functions of the various structures and their role in behaviour.
- in mental health the biological approach may help in treatments of disorders such as phobias, OCD and schizophrenia - drug treatments
- anti social behaviour are a t least partly explained by biological factors.
How can the the biological approach be evaluated
Scientific methods for investigation using measures which are largely objective such as brain scanning techniques and biochemical levels.- can be reproduced.
- nature perspective-
- clear prediction of human behaviour helping develop drugs to help psychological problems.
-evolutionary theory would empathise the problems of genetic mutation which would arise from inbreeding. People natural selection would favour those individuals. However must cultures have strict moral codes on this
What is the historical context of the biological approach
In 1840 French man suddenly lost the power of speech for the next 21 years until his death in 1861 the only way that he could say was tan. He could understand speech and follow instructions easily.
After tan Guide the psychologist Paul Broca conducted autopsy on tans brain and found damage in the left frontal lobe. Concluding that that area of the brain is responsible for speech. Broca's findings had further implications in particular that said aspect of behaviour are clearly controlled by different areas within the brain
What are the two terms that show how genetics can influence the development of an individual
Genotype and phenotype
What is genotype
The genetic make up of an individual which occurs a contraception and provides the genetic code for how an individual will develop. At fertilisation two sets of chromosomes 23 from the mother and 23 from the father unite to form zygote - each individual has around 100,000 genes. The genotype decides such characteristics like eye colour. Each individual has a genotype which is unique to them apart from genetic twins
What is a phenotype
What happens with the genotype interacts with the environment. The genotype dictates a persons maximum height but environments factors such as nutrition will effect how likely the person is too achieve their potential height.
If the environment does not provide the optimum conditions then the individual will not fulfil there potential to be tall.
This is the same with psychosocial characteristics in that they may be a genetic predisposition to a behaviour but may not represent itself due to the environment inhibiting it development.
How do biology psychologist study the influence of genes
Family history studies
What did Nestadt et Al find out about first degree relatives
First degree relatives of OCD have a 11.7 % chance of developing the disorder compared to 2.7 % in the general public. Showing some influence over genes influencing mental disorders.
Why are twin studies better than family studies
They provide a more precise way of assessing the extent of genetic influence on behaviour.
What do scientists look at in twin studies
What did Miguel find
What did McGuffin find
What does this suggest
The concordance rates if these influences. Monozygotic twins are genetically identical therefore there should be a higher concordance rate than dizygotic twins who are no more genetically similar than siblings.
Miguel found a 53-87% concordance rate for OCD in monozygotic twins compared to 22-47% in dizygotic twins.
McGuffin found a concordance rate of 46% in monozygotic twins compared to 20% in dizygotic towns.
This suggests that the fact that monozygotic twins don't have a 100% concordance rate for either psychological disorders indicates that the enviro,entail factors still play an important role. Biological factors cannot solely explain human behaviour.
What is the mechanism behind biological evolution
Individuals within a species differ from each other in terms of physical characteristics and their behaviour because individuals must compete for access to resources. These who survive this competition will go into reproduce. These characteristics will be selected as they will be passed on to future generations.
When did the humanistic approach come around and why
Started in the late 50s 60s
A period of rapid social change in which long established social norms were questioned and challenged
A group of American psychologists became u satisfied with the two major approaches in explaining human behaviour - psychodynamic and behaviourism as both views had negative views of human behaviour
What are the two main assumption of the humanistic approach
Every individual is unique and every individual has free will
What does the humanistic approach think about the assumption that every individual is unique
-All different so should be treated differently.
- no point trying to generalise to groups as there are so many differences within each group
- this approach is therefore unlikely to generalise to groups and subdivide the population into clusters which all share a characteristic.
- believe we are self determining and therefor unique
- psychologists should therefore consider subjective experiences rather than establishing general laws or principles of behaviour
What does the humanistic approach think about the assumption that every individual has free Will
- we choose what we do and are in control of our own behaviour
- we determine our own development
- we do have constraints on our free will due to social rules, laws and morals that restrict whether we actually act upon are own free will
- people have the ability to reflect on their feelings and experiences and to imitate personal growth in the selfs and their lives
What are some of the implication of the belief of free will
A person is responsible for their own behaviour social or anti social
In terms of the legal system this places the responsibility with the individual, meaning it's their fault
Define free will
The power of acting without the constraints of necessity or fate. The ability to act at ones discretion
What do humanists believe is the issues with lucking at one part of an individual
If you don't look at the whole of the individual then much of what is effecting them might be missed
What do humanists not just focus on in therapy
They consider the whole lifespan
What do humanists argue about using scientific measures to measure behaviour
That they are too objective and yet humans are subjective in the way they think and behave.
What is self actualisation in the humanistic approach
Everyone has a innate drive to achieve there full potential. Both Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow believe that the individuals self actualise in their own way which is unique to them.
When it is achieved it can be deceived as as the ultimate feeling of well being and satisfaction
Theorists argue it's a drive me all have but do not all achieve
Strong feeling of completeness
What does research by Sheffield et al show about self actualisation
There is a positive correlation between an individual's level of self actualisation and there psychological health, this study was conducted on 185 college undergraduates and the measure of self actualisation used was the personal orientation inventory developed by shostrum.
What is the theory of flow
Developed by cskizentmihalyi in 1990
Talks about the flow being a state when someone is completely caught up in a task, sport or activity so that they are totally focused on it. This state seems to increase person growth because the person is driven to improve their performance . (Daniels ) they are also more like lye to have the sort of peak experience that are of self actualisation
What can effect ones self concept and prevent personal growth
Experiencing a negative event and adopting a negative attitude about it
What is maslows hierarchy of needs
5 basic needs a person has to meet are psychological, safety, belonging, self esteem and self actualisation needs. If the first need is not met the all the other needs can not be fulfilled.
We all work through these needs as an attempt to self actualise. It is clear that if you have no food the it will be difficult to move past psychological needs. Likewise living In a war zone means that you cannon achieve safety needs
- feeling good about ones self and to establish a sense of competence and achievement.
- the self actualisation is not permanent and if the five needs to do not remain in place an individual can move into a state until all needs are back place.
- being hungry or tired, will mean that a person is not meeting their needs
What did car Rodgers work focus on
On the selves of the individual. He suggested we have 3 selves which need integrate to achieve self actualisation.
-the self concept - the self you feel you are. Similar to self esteem and is affected by it, if someone has low self esteem their self concept will be poor and they will have a distorted view of how capable they are. People may have a distorted view of themselves
The ideal self- this is the self you wish to be. Who you are aiming towards becoming. This differs from self concept in that it is not who you think you are it's who you wish to be
The real self - this is the person you actually are not who you think you are or who you wish to be. This is a difficult self to demonstrate and is subject to interpretation
When does Rodgers say we construct ourself
What does Rodger believe we have to be in order to self actualise
During childhood - from our experiences of the world and the evaluation of significant others such as parents and teachers
-To be fully functioning. Giving them the opportunity for self actualisation. It's doesn't occur by chance. Any barriers that occur in the environment or from within are overcome.
- to be congruent. This means that their ideal self and actual experience are the same. It can be achieved if they are very similar. However congruence is difficult to achieve so many people do not reach their full potential and self actualise
How does Rodger believe we achieve congruence
What does Rodger think of conditions of worth
Having an unconditional positive regard. Meaning a person has to be loved unconditionally ie- for who they are. This can come from parents, other family members, friends a partner or a therapist. It is essential to be able to reach full potential.
Conditions of worth are required so the individual feels thy need to meet to be loved. This is also called conditional positive regard. Conditions of worth can either be real of perceived by the individual.
Give an example of a real situation when a child would not be able to experience positive positive regard and have trouble with self actualisation
A child who feels they need to attain high grades in school for their parents to accept and love them. This feeling could have been from being told by their parents that they need to get good grades. It could also be from if they have witnessed siblings causing parents disappointment because of poor grades. Either way if a child feels these conditions of worth it will mean they do not experience unconditional positive regard. They will find it difficult to self actualise and attain it. This is because conditioning of worth leads to incongruence between the self and the idea self.
What is the organismic valuing process
Give an example
Occurs when our sense of self is different to what someone else wants us to be
Sam doesn't give playing rugby but his dad has said he will be very proud of him when he scored his first try. Sam experiences his fathers love as conditional on him being good at sport. This leads to an unpleasant state caused by the contradiction between SAMs value based on his experience and the desire for his fathers approvals
What kind of theory did Carl Rodgers develop
What is it based on
What does it encourage
What is the aim
Person centred therapy (previously known as client centred)
Based on Rodgers view that each person is the best expert on himself or herself and therefore should be helped to find there own solution. There therapy is therefore non directive and those in therapy are called clients rather than patients.
It encourages the individual to talk as openly and as possible with the counsellor listening carefully and reflecting back on what they have said.
The aim is for the councillor to enter the clients world as if it were there own. The client- therapists relationship is especially important and is a my for therapists to make their clients feel comfortable and accepted, they are therefore likely to be more honest and help remove barriers.
What does Carl Rodgers person centred therapy help show to the client
What does this therapy help influence
Unconditional positive regard and being congruent
CBT and third wave CBT which both interstate humanistic ideas of subject experience and research by Wampold emphasises that all therapies should integrate a client centred approach like that of Rodgers to be effective.
What research would support the usefulness of person centred therapy
Elliott showed in a mega analysis of 86 studied, humanistic therapies promoted significant improvements in clients when compared with people not receiving treatments. The effectiveness helps the influence of the therapy and consequently he ideas of the humanistic approach.
Why is the subjective experience of the individual hard to test in the humanistic approach
However why is it a strength
As what one thinks of something maybe interpreted differently by someone else.
As it acknowledges the effect it has on behaviour
Why is it difficult to test the humanistic theory under experimental conditions
As self actualisation and congruence are abstract concepts and cannot be objectively measured. Consequently research does not support aspects of the theory that are often correlational and do not demonstrate causality
What evade de supports the impact of conditions of worth
Harter et al
What are the basic assumptions of the psychodynamic approach
-unconscious mind is the force behind our behaviour
- it is instinct or drive that motivates are behaviour
- early childhood is a pivotal in making us the person we are
What does the psychodynamic theory suggest about the unconscious mind
The driven force behind our behaviour. If we have a problematic or challenging behaviour, we must access the unconscious mind to sort it out. The unconscious mind has a greater influence on behaviour than the conscious mind. It is the repository for material that was distressing, painful or embarrassing. The material could leak during dreams. Dreams contain desires and wishes which are often of a sexual or aggressive nature.
What does instinct help us to do (psychodynamic theory)
Motivates our behaviour. Driven by instinct to go through a series of stages in the development of our behaviour and personality. This approach believes we have a sexual instinct (libido) from both as we develop we go through 5 Psychosexual stages were the libido is satisfied in different ways until we reach the final stage around 12 years old
What does Freud say about the importance of childhood
Childhood is a pivotal in making us the person we are. Most of our psychological development is argued by this approach to have formed by the age of 6.
What does the psychodynamic theory argue are our 3 levels of thought
Conscious mind, pre conscious and unconscious
What does Freud say about the structure of personality
Early experiences are vital in shaping our personality. We have 3 personalities and the way in which they develop effects the person we become. They are shaped through experience and will effect how someone behaves. Much of our behaviour comes from the conflict between the three
What are our 3 personalities according to Freud
ID, ego, superego
What is the ID (Freud)
Born with. 'Pleasure principle' - its dominant force is to seek pleasure. Childish, selfish and hedonistic. Focus's on the self and seeks immediate gratification.
What is the ego (Freud)
Develops in the anal stages
18months- 3 years old
'Reality principle' aims to satisfy the IDs demands in a socially acceptable way.
Able to delay the ids demand for pleasure (deferred gratification)
Keeps the balance of influence between the ID and the superego as they are opposite forces and neither should become dominant in a personality otherwise this could effect the behaviour and mental health of the individual
The role of the ego is to ensure this doesn't happen
What is the superego (Freud)
3-6 years old
Internalised voice of the same sex parent and develops at the Phallic stage as a result of identification.
It consists of the conscience which punishes the ego through guilt and ego ideal which is the idealised view of ourself that we strive to be like. The superego helps the personality to from a moral code
What are defence mechanisms
Methods that we unconsciously use to reduce anxiety. Anxiety weakens the influence of the ego which needs to be strong to mediate between the ID and the superego. Sometimes known as 'ego defence mechanisms'
How many defence mechanism did Freud say there was
Give an example of 3 defence mechanisms, define them and explain there effect on behaviour
Repression- an unpleasant memory is pushed into the unconscious mind where it is not accessible and therefore can not cause anxiety. However still effects the behaviour in the unconscious mind. Effect - there is no recall of the event of situation.
Denial- refusal to accept the reality of an unpleasant situation. Rescued anxiety caused by the situation. Effect- someone may believe the situation is not negative and therefore it should not cause anxiety. This is not positive thinking, just a resistance to a accept reality.
Displacement- when a strong emotion is expressed into a neutral person or object rather than the actual trigger for the emotion. This reduced the anxiety by allowing expression of that emotion. Effect- someone may exhibit very strong emotions but focus into an uninvolved person or object
What might be a negative effect of defence mechanisms
They may have a detrimental effect on our mental health and behaviour as the anxiety has not been resolved.
Evaluate defence mechanisms
- lack of falsifiability since they are an unconscious process and cannot be studied directly therefore we can not be certain how often one uses them in order to reduce anxiety
-they can only be inferred from behaviour or from reported thoughts or experiences.
- William investigated repression in woman who had been diagnosed as suffering childhood sexual assault. 38% of the females had no recall of the earlier abuse and out of those who did 16% said at one time they had not but now they had recovered the memories. William also found that the earlier age of abuse the more likely they was not to remember it. These findings suggests that painful memories and be forgotten and later recovered supporting the concept of repression.
What are the 5 psychosexual stages in development
Oral 0-2 years
Anal- 2-3 years
Phallic - 3-6 years
Latent- 6-11 years
Genital - 12 years
What is the oral stage of development
0-2 years. At birth the child enters the oral stage. The focus for please, gratification is the mouth. A child will get gratification from sucking and biting. Freud believed that this stage was important in formation of personality. Initially as they child has no teeth it is in a phase of oral passive which is when please is mainly derived from sucking and swallowing, like breast feeding. Then the infant enters the oral aggressive phase which is when they infant gains pleasure from biting and chewing, like when a child starts teething.
If a child is weaned from the mothers milk to early or too late or the feeding pattern was erratic it was argued that the child would become fixated in the oral stage, this is because the libido would not receive the amount of appropriate gratification. This would have an unconscious effect on the personality, in a adult this fixation might mean, if oral passive (non aggressive) that they are very dependant, passive and gullible. Conversely an oral aggressive person will be aggressive ( psychically or verbally).
Being orally passive or aggressive depends on the mother child relationship. Overall people with an oral fixation are thought to be more likely to chew on pens, bite their fingernails and smoke.
What is the anal stage of development
2-3 years old
Libido moves focus from the mouth to the anus. Pleasure is therefore gained from withholding or expelling faeces. This is also the age when a child is potty trained, if the child loved using the potty and is keen to do so them the child is thought to be anally expulsive; as an adult fixation this translates to a generous person who is demonstrative with their emotions, they may also have fits and tempers.
If the parents are very strict about potty training they may become anxious about using the potty and try to hold in the faeces rather than to use it, this may make them anally retentive. These unconscious fixation may display an adult who is stubborn, reluctant to spend money and shows orderliness.
Explain the phallic stages in the psychosexual stages of development
This focuses on pleasure to the genitals.
Oedipus complex (boys)- a boy develops intense sexual feelings for his mother. His father is seen as a rival and therefore wants him to leave so the mother can focus more on him. The boy feels threatened by his father and feels like he could harm him. A boy is worried that is father will castrate him as he may see him as a rival and this is called castration anxiety.
In order to combat the anxiety the boy feels like he has to befriend his father. He does this by acting similar to him, seeing him as a ally rather than a rival for the mothers affection. This is called identification. This reduced the castration anxiety felt by the boy and his Oedipus complex is resolved. The boy abandons his feelings for his mother an as a result of identification be adopts the masculine identify.
For this to occur the father figure must be present otherwise the child is likely to grow up to be a homosexual, however there is no evidence for this.
Electra complex (women )
The realisations that they do have a penis and they think there mother has removed it - penis envy of males. When the desire is not fulfilled it is expressed through the desire to have a baby. The little girl desires the father in a way similar to the boy with their mothers, so she goes through the identification process in the same way.
What is the latent stage in the psychosexual stages of development
6-11 years old
The libido is displaced throughout the body and it seems like this is a relatively calm time in development with no complexes to resolve or foci for pleasure in the body. The child essential concentrates on being a child.
What is the genial stage of the psychosexual stages
The libido is once again focused on the genitals and this is where it will stay for the rest of its life. Everyone reaches this stage and from here the child becomes an adult. It is the fixation in the first 3 stages that have an enduring effect on the adult personality.
How was Freud highly influential in introducing talk therapies
Prior to this people with mental health issues were largely contained many in poor quality institutions. His ideas are used by some therapists today to treat mental health issues so this suggests that there is a group of psychologists that feel the psychodynamic ideas have merit and validity. There is also case studies from Freud's work that seem to show patients made a recovery following therapy.
How can the psychodynamic approach be criticised for not being scientific
Not scientific therefore not testable or falsifiable. For example, the focus on the role of the unconscious means that the researchers or therapists claims can never be proven wrong. It is also highly subjective and open to interpretations of the analyst therefore it could be questioned how reliable the process is