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What is meant by the term interactional synchrony

Adults and babies respond in time to sustain communications. Interactions are timed perfectly almost as though there were one. Infants move in the rhythm of the careers spoken language.


What is meant by the term reciprocity

The idea of turn taking interactions. Interaction flows both ways between adult and infant. For example when mum smiles and a baby smiles back. Resulting in mutual behaviour


Outline which study demonstrates that babies are capable of care giver interactions such as interactional synchrony and reciprocity

Meltzoff and Moore 1977
Found children as young as three weeks old imitated specific facial and hand gestures.
Controlled observation were they used adult models to demonstrate a sequence of facial expressions and hand gestures to a child whilst they had a dummy placed in there mouth meaning they couldn't respond. After the sequence had been performed the dummy was removed. Observers recorded all instances of tong protrusions and head movement. All scored were greater than 0.92


Evaluate meltzoff and moores study of care giver interactions

Issues with the reliability of the study, expressions that are tested are recorded occur quite frequently so it's difficult to distinguish between general activity and specific imitated behaviour. Koepke et al failed to replicate the findings however meltzoff and Moore argue that's because there study wasn't controlled.
However the study demonstrates intra and inter observer reliability- fact reliable


Which study supports the idea of interactional synchrony and how ?

Meltzoff and Moore 1977 demonstrated the same synchrony on a 3 day old infant. The fact that infants as young as 3 days old was displaying the behaviour would rule out the possibility that imitation is learnt it would In Fact seem that behavioural response is innate. Suggesting that we are born with a desire to synchronise and supporting nature.


What does brazelton suggest about reciprocity

He suggests that this basic Rhythm is an important stage to later communication. The sensitivity to infants behaviour lays the foundation for later attachment between caregiver and infant.


What was troniks study on reciprocity

Tronik asked mothers who have been enjoying a dialogue with their baby to stop moving and maintain a static unsmiling expression. They found that the babies would try tempt there mother into reacting by smiling and baby's soon became puzzled and distressed when they did not get a reaction. Showing that babies expect a concordat response.


What did abravanel and DeYong 1991 study on infant sensitivity laying the foundation of later attachment consist of

They observed infants behaviour when interacting with 2 objects. They found that infants aged of 5 to 12 weeks made little response to the object, concluding that infants do not just imitate anything there imitation is in fact a specific social response to other humans, suggesting that this care giver interaction is a basis for us forming attachment with humans.


What is attachment

An enduring two way emotional tie to a specific person. Normally between a parent and child, this develops in set stages within a fairly set timescale.


What where the two characteristic that Schaffer and Emerson looked for which indicated whether an attachment had been made?

Stranger anxiety- showing stress when near an unfamiliar person- indicates that they can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people

Separation protest- if they cry and show distress when separated from their attachment figure.


What was the procedure in Schaffer and emersons study of the Glasgow babies

Longitudinal study. Overt observation over a 2 year period. 60 infants from working class backgrounds in Glasgow.The infant was observed every4 weeks until they was 1, and then again at 18 months. At the start the youngest infant was 5 weeks and the oldest was 23 weeks.
They measured attachment in two ways.
Using the separation protest in seven everyday situation. For instance the infant was left alone in a room, with others after being held by an adult.
They second way of measuring was using stranger anxiety, at the beginning of the research the research approached the infant and recorded how long it would be until the infant starter to whimper.


What where the finding of Schaffer and Emerson in the Glasgow babies study

1. Half of the children showed their first specific attachment between 6-8 months
2. They where large individual difference in the intensity of attachment. Those who where intensely attached tend to have mothers who responded quickly offering the child the most interaction however infants with weaker attachment tend to have mothers who didn't interact
3. Multiple attachment- soon after making one main attachment infants became attached to others. Be 18 months very few 13% were only attached to one person. 31% was attached to at least 5 other set father, grandparents. In 65% of infants the mother was there main form of attachment and in the other 30% the mother was first joint object of attachment.
4. In 39% of cases the person who bathed, and changed the child was not the the main attachment, even if the mother did not perform these tasks they was still the child's main attachment.


What did Schaffer refine as the 4 stages of attachment in the Glasgow babies study

Pre- attachment stage (birth to 3 months) infant becomes attracted to other humans, preferring them to objects, demonstrated by a smile.
Indiscriminate stage (3 months- 7/8 months) infants start to become discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar faces. But still let stranger handle them .
Discriminate phase-( 7/8 months- 9 months) infants begin to develop specific attachments and become distressed when separated from them, they avoid unfamiliar faces and protest if strangers handle them.
Multiple attachment stage- (9 months onwards) infants begin to make multiple attachments with other caregiver. The fear of strangers weaken but the bond between the mother remains strong.


What is an advantages of Schaffer and Emersons Glasgow babies study being longitudinal

The study was longitudinal meaning they studied the same participants for a long period of time other than a one of study with 60 children between 5 weeks and 2 years. This cancelled out participant variables acting as extraneous variables and confounding the results. This allows more valid results as any comparisons across time are made with the same participants


How can Schaffer and Emersons study of the Glasgow babies be criticised

The mothers had to do some of the recording themselves therefore they may record the behaviour of there child at separation and during stranger anxiety in a socially desirable way. Furthermore the mothers may not of had time to record the data at the time it occurs so record it later, this would mean the data would fail to be accurate and would reduce the validity of the research.
60 working class infants of Glasgow means the sample is not representative of the wider population, this makes the study lack population validly, people from other cultures may treat there children differently meaning the finding may have different in a different sample group.


How does rutter challange bowlbys idea of monotrophy

Rutter 1995 challenged bowlby and argues that all attachments figures are equivalent. He believes all attachments are integrated to produce an infants attachment type. Combining to form a child's internal working model ( how they carry out attachments when there older )


Why may it be argued that children with multiply attachments are at an advantage

As they are more able to form and conduct social relationships as they have the experience to do so and so if a child loses an attachment figure they have several others to turn to.


What did Schaffer and Emerson find about fathers and why may this be inaccurate

They found fathers were less likely to be a primary attachment figure. However this research was carried out in the 1960s when mothers where less likely to work outside the home. Today fathers take a more active role are are much more likely to be the first attachment figure than in the 1960s


How would ramchandani et al argue that fathers are important to infants when growing up.

He would suggest that fathers who are more positively engaged with there infants at the age of 3 months have fewer behavioural problems at the age of 12 months. Suggesting that the parent child interaction in the early post natal period may be beneficial to the child's behaviour later on in life.


How could it be argued that fathers are just not psychologically equipped for intense attachments

Because they lack the emotion sensitivity that women offer. This may be due to biological and social factors. The female hormone oestrogen underlies caring behaviour in women. So woman are generally more oriented towards interpersonal goals than men.


What is the fundamental principle of bowlbys theory

That attachment is innate and adaptive process for infants and parents and provides an evolutionary perspective. Attachment behaviour has evolved and endured because it promotes survival and reproduction as proposed by Dawkins the sort of evolution.


How does attachment promote survival

-Safety- the desire to maintain proximity ensures the infants safety
-Emotional relationships- attachments enables the infant to learn how to form and and conduct healthy emotional relationships it provides us with an 'internal working model' a set of conscious and unconscious rules and expectations regarding are relationship with others
-secure base for exploration- exploration is a fundamental for cognitive developments


What were Bowlbys 4 claims

- attachments are adaptive within a CRITICAL PERIOD
-attachment behaviours are prompted by SOCAIL RELEASERS
-children form relationships ( MONOTROPY) which there main caregiver, usually their mother
- attachments form an INTERNAL WORKING MODEL or schema for future relationships


What does bowlby mean by 'critical period'

Implies that a aspect of development had to take place during a set period of time otherwise it won't take place at all
Similar to imprinting in animals it is innate, biologically driven process
The critical period ends between 1-3 so if it's not formed by then then the child will never be able to form one


Name an describe one study that supports bowlbys idea of critical period

divided a group of fertile goose eggs into two. Let half hatch naturally with there mother and but the other half in an Incubator. When those in the incubator hatched he ensured Lorenz was the first person they saw. Lorenz later mixed the two groups of eggs up and half that had hatched in the incubator went to Lorenz and the other half went to their mother. This demonstrates the process of imprinting which makes sense in terms of survival. As mothers escape predators so the young must remain close to them to protect their survival needs


Name and describe one study that challenges the idea of bowlbys critical period

With criticisms

Guiton found that imprinting could be reversed. Leghorn chicks exposed to yellow rubber gloves feeding them during the first 3 weeks became imprinted on the gloves but after spending time with their own species the imprinting was reversed
This suggests it is not purely innate behaviour
However the attachments behaviour of geese is not necessarily that of humans. Animals are likely to have different survival needs and therefore may differ in the way that they form attachments.


What does bowlby mean by his claim of social RELEASERS

Social RELEASERS are characteristics that elicit a caregiver response eg smiling and crying

Bowlby suggests that it is adaptive for u facts to display these behaviours because those infants that do will be protected and cared for and so will survive and be able to go on to reproduce passing on such traits

He also said adults are innately programmed to respond to these characteristics as it is adaptive to do so. If parents are motivated to look after their children then their child has a better chance of surviving in order to reproduce and hence will pass on their parents genes


How can the idea of social releases be criticised

Cannot offer a full explanation as they fail to account for the fact that adults do not become attached to every baby who looks cute and babies do not become attached to every adult who responds to them


Who does bowlby mean by monotropy

It would seem adaptive to form one main attachment with the person who provides the most care the desire to maintain proximity to that person will give the Infact the best possible chance of survival


Give 2 examples of how Bowlbys idea of monotropy can be criticised

Schaffer and Emerson
- multiple attachment phase - at 18 months 13 % of children were attached to just one person 31% had 5 or more attachments. 65% the mother was the first main attachment and in 30% the mother was joint with an object

- the importance of fathers. Grossman and grossman 1991 suggested that children who grow up with their fathers go on to have better future relationships, less behavioural problems and are more able to relegate their emotions showing that fathers as well as mothers have a positive influence on developmental outcome


What did bowlby mean by an internal working model

A child's expectation about relationships. It is formed in relation to a child's first attachment relationship and guides their behaviour in future relationships.
Bowlby suggested that in the first attachment the child builds a model of themselves whether they are trustworthy or not, a model of their caregiver whether they are trustworthy or not and a model of the relationship between the two.
Provide them with a set of expectations about what to expect from relationships. This leads to the continuity hypothesis- the view that there is a link between early attachments and later emotional behaviour. Insecurely attached children have more SOCAIL and emotional difficulties in childhood and adulthood


Who conducted the love quiz ?
Outline the procedure

Hazen and Shaver
Procedure- proposed that the reason adults share different romantic relationships is because of their different experiences as infants.
Love quiz- questionnaire that could assess an individual's style of love as well as attachment type.

The quiz had 2 components
1 measure of attachment style: checklist of childhood relationship with parents and parents relationships with each other
2 the love experience questionnaire which assessed individuals be,idea about romantic love

Printed in a local newspaper and readers were asked to send there responses. Researcher analysed the first 620 between the ages of 14-82


What was the findings of hazen and shavers love quiz

Positive correlation between attachment type and love experience. Securely attached adults describe their love experience as happy friendly and trusting being able to support and accept partners despite faults.
Resistant types experienced love as involving obsession, desire for reciprocation, emotional nights and lows, extreme sexual attraction and jealously. Worried that there partners didn't really love them.
Avoidant types feared intimacy, emotional highs and lows and jealously. Believed they did not need love to be happy

Securely attached individuals had a more positive internal working model.


Evaluate the love quiz

14-82 can generalise findings to the population however it may be argued that 14 year olds are too young to understand love
- local newspaper- people from one local area not a world wide generalisation
- volunteer- nicer and helpful people
- people who respond may have solid relationships for others it may be a socially sensitive topic


What is classical conditioning in the learning theory in attachment

Learn through the association
Food ( unconditioned stimulus) produces a sense of pleasure ( unconditioned response)

The person who feeds he infant ( a neutral stimulus ) becomes associated with food and so becomes a conditioned stimulus


What is operant conditioning in the learning theory in attachment

Suggest that hungry infants feel uncomfortable and it creates a drive to reduce discomfort. When infant is fed the drive is reduced and produced a sense of pleasure( reward) food is therefore the primary reinforcer because it reinforced the behaviour in order to avoid discomfort, the person who supplies the food is associated with avoiding discomfort and becomes a secondary reinforcer


What is a similarities and difference between the operant condition and classical condition in the learning theory in attachment

Similarity- infants form attachments to the person who feeds them
Difference- in classical conditioning the association between an individual and a sense of pleasure is the attachment bond in operant conditioning the rewarding ness is the foundation of the attachment bond


How can the learning theory in attachment be evaluated

Not holistic enough. Too simplistic to assume that attachment form solely as a result of who feeds the child. It is likely that the attachment formation is much more complex with other factors such as contact and comfort playing a role.


What study may challenge the learning theory

Harrow 1959


What did argue Harlow argue

Tried to de on state that origins of love were not based on feeding bond between the the mother and infant as predicted by learning theory


What was the procedure of Harlow

-created two wire mothers each with a different head. One wire mother was wrapped in soft cloth
- 8 infant monkeys studied over 165 days
- for 4 of the monkeys the milk bottle was on the cloth covered money and plain wire monkeys for he other 4.
- during that time measurements were made of the amount of time each infant monkey with the 2 different mothers
- observations were made when frightened by a mechanical teddy bear


What were the findings of Harlow
What does it suggest

- all 8 monkeys spent most of their time with the cloth covered mother whether or not the mother had the feeding bottle
- those monkeys who fed from the wire mother only spent short time on getting the milk and then retired to the cloth covered monkey.
- when frightened all monkeys clung to the cloth covered mother for reassurance

This suggests that infants do not develop an attachment to the person who feeds them but the person who offers them comfort


How can Harlows study be evaluated

Carried out with animals so we cannot extrapolate to the findings of humans. As they differ in their cognitive and intellectual capabilities which would influence attachment formation

However there is research on humans that suggest that attachment behaviour is more comped than simply being the result of food provision. Schaffer and Emerson found up that in 39% of cased the person who fed bathed and changed the child was not the child's main attachment. Many of mothers were not the person who performed these tasks yet they were still the main object


How can it be argued that the learning theory of attachment is determinist

Suggests that infants have no choice over who they form attachments to that it is determined by who feeds them. This seems an unlikely explanation as it means that a child would form an attachment to someone who provided them with food even if they were cold and unresponsive but wouldn't form an attachment to someone who provided comfort and stimulation unless they also provide them with food.


How may hay and Vespo ( social learning theory ) explain how attachment occur

Through the modelling, direct instructions and social facilitations


What was the procedure of the strange situation

- 100 middle class American infants ( 12-18 months and their mother took part in the study
- controlled observation in a laboratory setting
- observer recorded the infants and mothers. Dhabi out during a set of 8 predetermined stages


What were the 8 predetermined stages of e strange situation

1 mother baby and of observer
2 mother and baby
2 stranger mother and baby
4 stranger and baby (first separation process)
5 mother and baby (first reunion episode)
6 baby alone ( second separation process)
7 stranger and baby
8 mother and baby ( second reunion )


What 4 behaviours was Mary Ainsworth interested in in the strange situation

- whether the child was willing to explore
- whether they demonstrated stranger anxiety
- whether they demonstrated separation protest
-what behaviour was demonstrated on reunion


What was the finding of the strange situation.

Securely attached infants
Infants are content to explore use caregiver as a safe base. Show some distress when left but are easily comforted and show joy at reunion. Wary of strangers and treat them differently to care giver
Insecure avoidant
Children do not orient their behaviour towards the caregiver. Little distress on separation and may avoid contact on reunion. Treat stranger and mothers the same.

Insecure resistant
Children are clingy, wary of strangers highly distressed on separation they may show conflict behaviour in reunion showing signs of anger


What can be concluded from the strange situation

- individual differences between individuals and their attachment types
- most American children are securely attached
- caregivers who were sensitive and respond to their child's needs were likely to have securely attached children. Caregivers who were cold and rejecting tended to have infants who were insecure avoidant and caregivers who were inconsistent in responding had children who were insecurely resistant.


How can the strange situation be positively criticised

The standardised procedure shows it to be easily replicated- and ensure that any differences in the behaviour of children is because of their attachment type not because of the difference in procedure. Because it uses a variety of measures to assess attachment by using 4 different criteria's to indicate the child's attachment type it makes it more valid.

The research has led to useful real work applications. The circle of security project teaches caregivers to recognise their infants signals of distress.


How can be strange situation be negatively criticised

-Mothers can change their behaviour due to the knowledge that they are being observed, this may confuse infants and result in an incorrect attachment being identified.
-Also Lacking ecological validity as it is a highly controlled environment.
-ethics of he procedure can be questioned as it involves deliberately causing the infant distress although it can be said that is is justifiable as the stress caused is no greater than that of everyday experiences like being left with an unfamiliar babysitter
-culturally bias as it was created in the USA for the use of American children's and it assumed that the behaviours that children display in the research situation mean the same thing across cultures. As can lizendoorn and kroonenberg showed this is not the case


What does cross culture research show us

Whether or not attachments are universal. Do all children attach in the same way regardless of culture ? This may suggest that attachments are innate rather than due to differences in child rearing


How may it be argued that the main attachment isn't necessarily the person who does the care giving

Studied African Efe tribe and found infants were looked after and even breastfed by different women but usually they slept with their own mother at night, despite the differences in childrearing practices the infants at 6 months still showed one primary attachment


What was the aim and procedure of van ljzendoorn and kroonenberg

Aim: to investigate cross culture variations in attachment. To test whether the strange situation has external validity as a tool for assessing attachment types in other cultures

Procedure: meta analyses of 32 studies that had all used the strange situation to measure attachment types. They compared studies from 8 different countries including western and non western cultures


What were the findings of vjzendoorn and kroonenberg

- securely attachment was the most common across all cultures
- insecure resistant was the second most common among non western cultures
- insecure avoidant was the second most common among western cultures, especially Germany
- apart from Japan where there was an equal distribution between insecure avoidant and insecure attached
- there was one and a half times greater intra variation that inter variation between cultures


Criticise the ljzendoorn and kroonenberg so study

- used a meta analysis of 32 studies that had been carried out by different research teams. Different teams could carried out the techniques In different ways therefore the meta analysis would lack internal reliability so the conclusion may not be valid and show be treated with caution

- the fact that it was a meta analysis means they were able to compare a larger amount of information that they could not have been able to collect themselves. More valid results as we get a wide range of results. It reduces the impact of anomalous results which means any extreme values will have less impact in the data.

- it is incorrect to assume that comparisons between countries reveal comparisons between cultures. Within each country there are likely to be subcultures that differ in their childrearing practices. This may suggest why there was greater within culture variation than between.


Is it appropriate to use the strange situation in other cultures give cultural examples

It is unfair to assume that German mothers are unresponsive and rejecting and that Japanese mothers are inconsistent.
The culture variations could be explained in terms of different child care practices. In Japan infants rarely experience separation from there mothers which would explain why they are more distressed in the strange situation than Americans

Sagi et al studied children in isreal and found that a high promption of children who were cal assumed insecure resistant. Lamb et al explained these findings as being due to the fact that these children were raised in kibbutzim which are self contained communities therefore they rarely come across strangers.


Is it right to use the strange situation in different cultures

Different cultures have different ways of raising children. So the strange situation isn't a valid measure of attachment in different cultures. The study was designed for Americans and reflects American norms and values using this to classify children of other cultures could be an example of Imposed etic.

It is ethnocentric to judge other cultures in terms of the norms and values of their own eg- just because German mothers encourage independence doesn't mean there insensitive. What is abnormal in some cultures may be perfectly normal in another.

Assuming secure attachment is the best type of attachment is ethnocentric


Define deprivation

Refers to the loss of emotional care normally provided by a primary caregiver. If a child is denied emotional care for a period of time them the attachment bond may be disrupted.


What was bowlbys maternal deprivation hypothesis

If infants are unable to develop a warm intimate and continuous relationship with their mother the. The child will have difficulty forming relationships with other people.
If a child experiences repeated separation in the first 2.5 years of life that it is likely to become permanently disturbed.
The mothers love in infancy and childhood are as important as vitamins and proteins in mental health.

Deprivation will lead to emotional maladjustment and mental health problems


What is the PDD model

Bowlby and Robertson to describe the distress caused by separation:
Protest: immediate reaction to separation. Crying kicking screaming and trying to cling on to the mother to prevent her leaving. This is an outwards direct expressions of the child's anger, fear, bitterness and confusion

Despair: protest is replaced by a calmer more apathetic behaviour- anger and fear are felt inwardly . There is little response to offer of comfort instead the child comforts its self eg thumb sucking

Detachment: the child responds to people again but treats everyone warily. They often reject their caregiver on their return and may show signs of anger


How do Robertson and Robertson supports the PDD model

Documented the behaviour of John a 17 month old boy who went in to residential car for 9 days while his mother went to hospital to have a baby. Prior to this John had a close and stable relationship with his mother. Over the course of 9 days he demonstrate signs of protest and despair and when his mother came to collect him he struggled to get away from her. The negative effects of this separation were evident even years later.

This research led to significant changed in the way. Children were cared for.


What is long term deprivation

Involves lengthy of permanent separation from attachment figure. Emotional separation is associated with the negative effects of deprivation this leads to attachment bond breaking.


What was the aim and procedure of how bowlbys study on 44 juvenile thieves

Aim: to establish a cause and effect relationship between maternal deprivation and emotional maladjustment based of his observations of patients at his child guidance clinic.

Procedure: opportunity sample of 88 children selected from bowlbys clinic. 44 had been caught stealing and the other half was a control group ( referred for emotional problems ) retrospective and present case studies were used to asses maternal separation and evidence of emotional maladjustment


What were the findings of bowblys study of the 44 juvenile thieves

32% of the thieves as affectionless psychopaths but nOne of the controls were.
86% of the affectionless psychopaths had experienced maternal separation before the age of 5, whereas Only 17% of the thieves not so diagnosed had experienced maternal separation.


What was the conclusion of bowblys study of 44 juvenile thieves

That the maternal separation in the child's early life caused permanent emotional damage- called affectionless psychopaths- lack of emotional development, lack of concern for others, lack of guilt and the inability to form meaningful and lasting relationships. He claimed that once the attachment bond was broken, the negative effects could not be reversed or undone. This research informed the issues concerning parenting especially the negative consequence of mothers working


How could the study of 44 juvenile thieves be criticised

- some of the data collected through case study's - looking back at maternal experience may lack data validly as participants may recall inaccurately.
- opportunity sample- inevitably bias- participants based in bowblys clinic and were diagnosed by bowlby- vulnerable to researcher bias - lack internal validity


Who may argue that maternal deprivation increases the likelihood of further troubles

Bifulco et al 1992
Found that women who have experienced separation from their mothers because of death or temporary separation for more than a year found that 25% later experienced depression compared to 15% who had experienced no separation. Mental problems was greater in those women whose loss occurred before the age of 6, supporting the notion of the critical period


Is it separation that leads to permanent damage or is it something else?

Rutter would argue that his own research on the Isle of Wight indicated antisocial behaviour was linked to broken homes but the cause if this behaviour was stress and family discord which often accompanied the separation not the separation itself.


Does all deprivation lead to the same effect of permanent emotional damage

Richards would argue that attachment disruption though divorce leads to resentment and stress while the death of an attachment figure is more likely to result in depression and delinquency. This implies that separation through different causes produced different outcomes.


Define institutionalisation

Describes the result of institutional care where childcare is provided by orphanages and children's homes. Some of the effects of institutionalisation include social, mental and physical underdevelopment.


What were the aims and procedure of hodges and Tizards study on the effects of ex- institutionalised children

Aim: to test Bowblys maternal deprivation hypothesis. A longitudinal study to collect reliable information linking to early experience to later outcomes for the individual

Natural experiment
65 children who had been placed in an institution when they were less than 4 months.
The caregivers could not form attachments with the children.
Suggesting that the children experienced early privation- lack of emotional care- no attachment Bond

By the age of 2, 24 had been adopted and 15 had returned to their natural home and the rest remained institutionalised.

Assessment at the age of 8 and 16 involved interviewing those children who were adopted and those who had returned to their original homes, their parents teachers and peers were also interviewed.

Data was also obtained about a control group of 'normal peers'


What were the findings of hodges and Tizard

Differences between the adopted and restored children

Adopted children generally had close attachments to their parents and good family relationships

More similarities in behaviour of the adopted and restored children outside the family. For example both groups were more likely to seek adult attention and approval than the control group and both groups were less successful in peer relationships


What can we conclude from Hodges and Tizards study

There is evidence that does not support the maternal deprivation theory
The restored children often returned to the same difficult circumstances that they went to care for in the first place. In contrast adopted children went to homes were parents wanted a child. This shows that the recovery is possible given the right circumstances.

The study does give evidence to support the maternal deprivation hypothesis. Outside the family is would appear that early privation did have an effect on subsequent social development. It may be that adopted children got on with their families because their families made special efforts but did not experience this outside the home and were unable to form relationships as easy or as well


How can Hodges and Tizards study be evaluated

- individuals difference between the group meant that the internal validity of the study may be effected due to the differences such as: time spent in institution, their temperament or personality.
- longitudinal- beneficial when studying how relationships develop. However they can be problematic- expensive to fund over a number of years.
- issue- sample attrition- where participants drop out of the study throughout the years, this may result in a bias sample if the participants have dropped out because of problems in the home this would lead to overly positive views of the benefits of adoption.


Who did the Romanian orphan stud
What was the aim and procedure

Rutter et al 1998
Aim: to assess whether love and nurturing care could overturn the effects of privation the children had suffered in Romanian orphanages
Longitudinal study
Quasi experiment
Condition 1: children adopted be for that age of 6 months
Condition 2: children adopted between 6 months to 2 years
Condition 3: children adopted after 2 years

The dependant variable was the level of cognitive functioning
- 111 Romanian orphans- initially assessed for height, head circumference and the cognitive functioning on arrival in Britain.
- all children were assessed again at the age of 4
- a control group of 52 British adopted children were also assessed


What were the findings of Ritter Romanian orphan study

-Around 50% of Romanian orphans were retarded in cognitive functioning at initial assessments and most were underweight. The control group did not show these deficits.
- at the age of 4 the Romanian orphans showed great improvements in physical and cognitive development, with orphans adopted before 6 months of age doing as well as the British adopted children


What can be concluded from the Romanian orphanage study

The negative effects of institutionalisation can be overcome by sensitive, nurturing care. As the British adopted children did not suffer developmental outcomes. It can be seen that separation from carers will not on its own cause negative development effects.


What is meant by disinhibition attachment

A form of insecure attachment where children do not discriminate between people they choose as attachment figures. Strangers with inappropriate familiarity and maybe attention seekers.


How can Rutters study be evaluated

-Interviews could make the data subjective. Interviews might be biased as there are likely to know which group the children are in. This means it is vulnerable to interview a bias. Therefore it won't be valid.
-it is difficult to understand the conditions of the remaining orphanage. Their experience malnourishment privation were most influential on their outcomes. It may be that significant negative effects of institutionalisation are only likely when there are multiple risk factors present.


How does Simpson et Al study show about he influence of early attachment on adult relationships

Longitudinal study
Assessed attachment at one year f age and found that individuals classed as securely attached were rated as having higher social competence as children and were closer to friends at 16 and were more expressive and emotionally attached to that romantic partners in early adult hood


How can e evaluate The influence of early attachment on child hood and adult hood relationships

It has been suggested that continuity doesn't always occur. Insecure attached doesn't always become insecure attachment as adults. It could be argued that the average person participate in several important friendship and love relationships throughout their lives, providing opportunities for revising mental models of self and others. There may also be other factors which influence the success of adults relationships.


How did Rutter et Al evaluate the influence of early attachments

Rutter found that a group of people who had problematic relationships with theirs parents had gone on to achieve secure, stable and happy adult relationships. They termed this ' earned security'


How can influence of early attachment on later relationships be criticised

Perceiving the quality of the later relationships as being caused solely by the quality of attachment is somewhat deterministic as it suggests that individuals have no choice over there relationship experiences and they are determined by how sensitive their caregiver was towards them as infants. This is problematic as it presents very little hope for people who have an insecure attachment.


What are the effects of institutionalisation

Disinhibited attachment
Over activity
Quasi- autistic features- differs from true autism shows shows more flexibility in communication and social interests in peers.
Cognitive impairment- IQ scores are on average 15 points lower than the average child