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How can crime be defined

Any act against the law of the country in which it is committed and punishable by the state


How is crime socially constructed

As it is liable for change. Something that is a crime at one point in history may not be in a few years. It is therefore a reflection of the beliefs and attitude of society.


What are the four main issues that make crime difficult to define

Historical context


How does culture make crime hard to define

Crime varies across cultures
Eg- in the U.K. It is considered a crime to marry more than one person however not in other country's.


How does age make crime hard to define

It is obvious that if a child hits their mother with an object they cannot be convicted. They age in which they realise the difference between right and wrong is ascertain.
In the U.K.- 10. This clouds the definition of a crime as it is not applicable to all people


How does historical context make crime hard to define

Legal system changes its laws over time
Eg- homosexuality
Eg- parents right to smack a child


How does circumstances make crime hard to define

Within the U.K. They are two core elements that should be present for a behaviour to constitute a guilty act or time: actus reus and mens rea.
Actus reus - the crime should be a voluntary act.
Mens rea - the intention to do the crime.

Eg- if a man who suffers epilepsy has a fit in a club and on the way down it could be classed as an assault however. He was not in control (actus reus) and he did not mean to do it (no mens rea) therefore it is not a crime.


What are official statistics

Monitors crime rates throughout England and Wales.
It collects data on several elements of crime such as criminal damage and anti social behaviour, drug crime, property crime, victims of crime and violent and sexual crime.
The official national statistics reports various sources of crime that together give a fuller picture, but there is no official measure that combines sources into a single estimate of all crime in England and Wales.
They can be taken from many forms eg police recording of crime


Why may official statistics be useful

Help to see where crime rates are high, help to set up programmes in different areas to prevent these crimes.
Can make comparisons between the different areas and find national priorities.
Can see what crimes become more or less common
Patterns and trends and reveal target groups
Quantitative secondary data - already been published - objective


What are some of the problems with official statistics

Don't show why they crime was committed just statistics.
Don't show the relationship between the victim and perpetrator
The police may target certain groups based on prejudice beliefs
People may not report all crime, they might think it's too trivial, fear the repercussions , crimes to sensitive.
Lacks detail- don't understand the motive behind crime
Walker et at found that only 42% of crimes reported in the British crime survey were reported to the police.


What might the increase in sexual offences mean

Possibility of more awareness and media coverage, celebrities have being thorough it and opened up about it.


What are court statistics

What are prison statistics

-gives an indication of the number and types of crimes being processed by the courts and also sentencing patterns.

- info on the number of prisoners, offence categories and sentence duration. This is no shortage of data here, as the ministry of justice publishes weekly update figures of the prison population, which can accessed online. They also publish projections and from 2015 a figure of around 86,000 prison inmates it is estimated hat this may rise to 90,000 by 2020. 95% of prisoners are males,


What are victim surveys

The annual British crime survey (BCS) stated in 1982, involves interviewing a random sample of housemates about a range of crime related matter, including the fear ad experience of crime.
50,000 household selected random,y from the Royal Mail list of addresses.
From 2009 included 3,000 children between 10 and 15.
In 2012 it was renamed the crime survey fro England and wale (CSEW) as Scotland and Northern Ireland carry out there own crime survey.
All of them can be accessed online,
Main object - info about levels and nature of crime as public attitudes to crime and punishment to help inform home office policy.


Why may victim surveys be better than official statistics

What may be the problem with victim surveys.

Unreported crime can be accessed.
The 2006/2007 official statistics saw a 2% decrease in crime. CSEW saw a 3% increase.

- victims maybe embarrassed to discuss the crime eg- they have been raped.
- all households may not fill them out- only 75% actually take part
- the number of crimes reported by an individual is capped at 5. Because of this all crimes won't be reported.


What is an offender survey

The offender crime and justice survey
Self reported offending and drug and alcohol use.
To identify patterns and trends of offending behaviour.
Offenders were asked about personal victimisation, recognising offenders are also victims .
The surveys look at repeat offenders, the role of condenser and the relationship between perpetrator and victim.
Can pick up on unreported from


Why might offender surveys be better than official statistics and victim surveys

What might be some of the problems with using offending surveys to measure crime

Unreported from
Fro all may be more likely to open up to committing crime if they can just it with a crime they have been the victim of.

-Excludes people who can't fill in the survey eg- homeless people
- People may give socially desirable answers


What are the aims of custodial sentencing

-Incapacitation (protect the public)
-recidivism (prevent reoffending)
- to deter others
- retribution (to atone from wrong doing)
- punishment


What are the psychological effects of custodial sentencing

- stress and depression - suicide rates are considerably higher in prisoners than in the general population (15x higher ). Recent data suggests that 25% of the prison population age over crowded. This can effect psychological well being. A study of calhoun with rats showed that overcrowding led to increased aggression as well as hyper sexuality, stress and physical illness.

- institutionalisation - adapting to the norms and routines of prison life, no longer able to function on the outside. Zimbardo- prisoners and guards quickly adopted the norms and values based on their roles.

- prisonisation - the way prisoners are socialised adopting an inmate code. Behaviours that may be unacceptable in the outside world may be encouraged and rewarded inside the walls of the institution.


How can prison be seen as a positive reinforcement for some

Homeless people may like the idea of having food and shelter. Hollie did some research and found that prison became home to some prisoners. The fact they received 3 meals a day a bed and companionship was preferred to what they had on the outside.


How may recidivism rates show that prisoner are not effective

Why may rates be so high ?

Statistics produced by the ministry of justice in 2013 suggest that 57% of U.K. Offenders will reoffend within a year of being released with some prisoners reporting a reoffending rate to up to 70%

-criminal record might mean they can't get a job
-returning to the same circumstances that they were in before
- criminal personality
-Latessa and Lowenkamp- concluded that pacing low risk offenders wth high risk offenders makes it more likely for low risk individuals will reoffend. So custodial sentencing may lead to more crime.
- home office statistics suggests that younger people are more likely to commit crime and those committing crime such as theft and burglary are more than twice as likely to reoffend than those committing drug or sexual offences.


What approach is custodial sentencing based on
Based on this.... why may it be ineffective

Behaviourism - punishment makes you less likely to do it.

... according to behaviourist principles consequence must follow straight after committed crime for it to be effective.


How is token economy used in prisons
(Behaviour modification )

Given tokens for desirable behaviours such as making their bed. The items purchased with the tokens act as a reinforcer, increasing the likelihood that this behaviour will be repeated. Tokens are secondary reinforcers because they become reinforcers through being repeatedly presented alongside the reinforcing stimulus.


How can token economy be supported

How can it be criticised

Hobbs and holt - introduced a token economy programme with a group of young delinquents across 3 behavioural units ( a fourth acting as a control). They observed a significant difference in positive behaviour compared to the non token economy.
-cohen and filipczak found offenders were less likely to reoffend 2 years later if they took part in a token economy.

- depends on consistency. Bassett and Blanchard found any benifits were lost after staff applied the techniques inconsistently did to factors such as inadequate training or high staff turn over.


How can anger management help offenders

Aim is to reduce an emotional response by reconceptualising tune emotion using a range of cognitive behavioural skills


Who is anger management aimed at
What are the key aims of the programme

Violent offenders

-cognitive restructuring - greater self awareness and control over cognitive dimensions of anger
- regulation of arousal- learning to control physiological state
- behavioural strategies - solving skills, strategic withdrawal and assertiveness


What are the three key steps of anger management

1. Cognitive preparation - learn about anger generally and how it can be adaptive and maladaptive. They analyse there own patterns of anger and identify situation that provoke there anger.
2. Skill acquisition- skills to manage their anger such as self regulation, cognitive flexibility and relaxation. Taught better communication skills so they can resolve conflicts assertively without being angry.
3. Application training - clients apply skills in controlled and non threatening situations such as role plays of situations which previously made the. Angry, they receive feedback. Later they can try there skills in real world settings. Positive reinforcement from therapist after completion of role play is a very important part of the learning process.


How do Taylor and Navaco support anger management

Report 75% improvements rates (based on 6 meta analysis) using such programmes with offenders also appears, on average, to be successful.


What are the 3 biological explanations for offending behaviour

- historical approach - atavistic form
- genetics
-neural explanation


How does the atavistic form attempt to explain offending behaviour

Lombroso suggested that criminals were genetic throw backs. A primitive sub species that had more in common with our evolutionary ancestors than with the civilised modern man. Lombroso suggested that the atavistic form could be identified through a number of characteristics
-narrow, sloping brow
- strong, prominent jaw line
-extra toes, nipples or fingers.

There lack of evolutionary development means that they possess a savage and untamed nature that would inevitably result in crime as they would not be able to adjust to the demands of a civilised society.


What research did lombroso do to conclude his theory

Conducted research on 3,839 living criminals and examined the skulls of 383 dead criminals. He made precise measurements of he skull and other psychological characteristics and found 21% had one atavistic form while 43% had at least 5. He concluded that 40% of criminal acts could be accounted for by an atavistic form.


How can the atavistic form be evaluated

-doesn't account for social and environmental factors - biologically reductionist - only 40% of criminals, must be other factors contributing.
- inappropriate because crime is a social construction therefore we should explain it at a socio cultural level.
- determinists- not taking responsibility for there actions
- no control group, could be equally common amongst non criminals - lack of rigger
-social sensitive because it promotes stigma and stereotypes, people could be suspicious of people with their atavistic form.


How did lombroso identify the interaction of nature and nurture

Later suggested that the inherited atavistic form may interact with a persons physical and social environment to lead to criminality.
So he suggested that there were different types of criminals
-born criminals (atavistic form)
-insane criminals (mental illness )
-criminaloids (mental characteristics predisposed them to criminal behaviour under the right circumstances )


Why can lombroso be credited

How can he be criticised

First criminologist
First to introduce an evidence based approach to the study of crime by using empirical observation and detailed measurement.

His research lacked a scientific rigour - no control group. When goring did this he found no difference between control group of no criminals apart from that convicts were slightly smaller and had lower average intelligence.


How do genes try to explain offending behaviour

Inherited a gene or combination of genes that predispose them to committing crime.

Research into 900 offenders by Jari Tilhonen et al identified abnormalities on 2 genes:
MAOA gene - breaks down serotonin, dopamine and adrenaline. Low levels have been associated with criminality
CDH13 gene - associated with substance abuse and attention deficit order.
Said they were 13x more likely to have a history of violent behaviour.


Can genes fully explain offending behaviour

No as it only explains for violent crime, what about white collar crime? Also, one may be violent in a way that's not criminal eg- boxing.
Explains violence but not so much criminal behaviour.


How can Lange supported genes as an explanation for offending behaviour
How can this study be criticised

Studied 13 MZ and 17 DZ pairs of twins, one of he twins from each pair had spent time in prison. It was found that 10 of the MZ but only 2 of the DZ twins had a co twin who was prison.

- same sample?
Same genetics so supports biological factors but shows that there must be other factors only 10/13 not 100% concordance rate.
Validity - only have they been in prison not are they criminals ? May not of been caught.
MZ and DZ was determined by physical looks not DNA


How may an interactionist approach come into genes for explaining offending behaviour

By considering the role of epigenetics in deterring criminality. This is the theory that genes are switched on or off by epigenomes that are influenced by environmental factors such as maltreatment in childhood.
Caspi et all used data from a longitudinal study that followed 1,000 people from birth in the 1970s. They assessed anti social behaviour at age 26 and found 12% of those men with low MAOA genes had experienced maltreatment when they were babies and were responsible for 44% of violent convictions. Those with high levels of MAOA who were maltreated and those with low levels who were not maltreated did not display antisocial behaviour.


How can the genetic explanation for offending behaviour be generally evaluated

- doesn't take into context the social aspect of an individual's life's.
- reductionists
-social sensitive
- explains violent not criminals


How can the neural explanation explain offending behaviour

Difference in neurotransmitter levels in non criminals.
Damage to the prefrontal cortex (regulation of social interaction, emotion and moral behaviour) results in impulsivity, immaturity and loss of control.


How can raine et al support the neural explanation for offending

Found 11% reduction in the volume of grey matters in the prefrontal cortex of people with antisocial personality disorder compared to controls. (Anti social.... not criminal)


Why have serotonin and dopamine be seen as two possible explanation for Criminal behaviour ?

Serotonin - exerts a calming, inhibitory effect on neuronal firing in the brain, it is though to reduce aggression. A low level on the prefrontal cortex removes this inhibitory effect, so individuals are less able to control their impulsive and aggressive responses.
Dopamine- hyperactivity may enhance this effect.


What did Mann et al found that may support the effect of serotonin

35 healthy patients were given dexfenfluramine (depletes serotonin ) and completed a questionnaire in men aggression scores increased but not women.
This suggests that it may be more complex than just serotonin, one of the factors could be the role of testosterone


What are the psychological explanations for offending behaviour

Eysenck theory of the criminal personality
Cognitive explanation - level of moral reasoning and cognitive distortion
Differential association theory


How does Eysenck theory of personality aim to explain criminal behaviour

Eysenck argues that the criminal personality has 3 traits
Extraversion - sociable and outgoing, quite impulsive
Neuroticism - experience negative emotional state such as nervousness, anxiety and depression
Psychoticism - egocentric, lack empathy and are unconcerned by the welfare of others.

Eysenck believes it's innate, 67% of the variance in the traits is due to genetic factors.
Extraversion - levels of arousal in a persons nervous system, extraverts have an under active nervous system which means they constantly seek excitement and stimulation to increase there cortical system where as introverts have a naturally high level of arousal and therefore avoid stimulation.
Neuroticism is determined by the reactivity of the sympathetic nervous system - people who are neurotic react to stress, fight or flight is easily activated in situations of threat.
Psychoticism has been linked to higher levels of testosterone. (More males than females)


Why do you think people with these traits in Eysenck theory are more likely to commit crimes

The seek risk and excitement - crime stimulates them
More aggressive and have negative emotions, fight or flight is easily activated so they are more likely to interpret people as threats. Possible more likely to commit violent crime as its he spear of the moment.
Affection less psychopaths - lack of empathy and guilt, less concerns on the impact that there actions have on others


Give 2 study's which supports Eysenck's theory

Eysenck and Eysenck - compared 2'070 males prisoners with 2,422 male controls and found that the prisoners had higher scores of psychoticism, extraversion and neuroticism.
(Beta bias, large sample size )

Zuckerman - found a .52 correlation for identical twins on neuroticism compared to 0.24 for no identical twins. For extraversion the figures were 0.51 and 0.12 suggesting there is genetic components.
(40% variance, Eysenck claimed 67% )


Give 2 challenging study's for Eysencks theory

Farrington et al - reviewed several studies and reported that offenders scored high on pyschotisim but not extraversion and neuroticism.
(Meta analysis - reliable )

Bartol and Holanchock found that Hispanic and African- American offenders in a maximum security prison were less extravert than a non criminal control group.
( culturally bias, self report ? May think there different to what others think, might need to keep a reputation, may be that extroverts do better and fit in better, hence why these minorities turned to crime )


How can eysencks theory be criticised overall

Too simplistic - theories suggest there are more dimensions along which people vary and therefore personality is more complex than Eysenck proposed. The five factor model suggests the personality is made up of openness, conscientiousness, extraversion,agreeableness and neuroticism. (OCEAN). Therefore E And N May not less to criminal behaviour depending on the scores on other traits.

Personality is not assessed prior to their behaviour - it could be that person has altered there personality.


How does level of moral reasoning aim to explain criminal behaviour

Kohlberg produced a development theory of moral reasoning. He suggested that children's moral reasoning became more advanced as part of a general maturation process and as a consequence of having opportunities to discuss and develop their thinking eg- through the role of child play.
His research was based on men and boys who were given a series of moral dilemmas that they were were then asked questions about.


What were the 3 stages of moral reasoning kohlberg suggested

Pre conventional stage - children accept the rules of authority figure and judge by consequence eg- bad behaviour is punished and good behaviour is awarded
Stage 1- rules are obeyed to avoid punishment
Stage 2- rules are obeyed for personal gain.

Conventional - no longer follow rules for self interest but for the social system and ensure positive relationships and social order.
Stage 3- rules are obeyed for social approval
Stage 4- rules are obeyed to maintain social order. Each citizen has a duty.

Post conventional - unquestionable compliance to the rules of the system.
Stage 5-rules are obeyed if they are impartial and challenged if there infringe on the right of others.
Stage 6-rules based on a universal set of principles.


Why stage is a criminal most likely to be classed at

The pre- conventional stage - showing a lower level of moral reasoning than non criminals and less maturity and childlike reasoning. Non criminals are likely to have progressed to the conventional level and beyond. People are likely to commit crime at pre- conventional stage if they think it will go unpunished or if they think doing so will gain them a reward.


Give 2 study which supports the moral reasoning idea of committing crime

How can this study be criticised ?

Kohlberg et al- used the moral dilemma technique and found that violent youths were significantly lower in their moral development than non violent youths. This was still the case after controlling for social backgrounds.

...people may have given socially desirable answers? Only accounts for violent crime? Population validity... we don't know if adults who commit crime have a lower moral reasoning ?

- gudjonsson and signurdsson - used there offending motivation questionnaire and found that 38% of 128 male juvenile offenders did not consider the consequences of what they had done and 36% were confident they would not be caught.
( showing criminals are at the pre conventional stage)


How does kohlbergs theory have real life application

Realised that belonging to a democratic group and being involved in making moral judgements facilitated moral development. This led to the creation of cluster schools where members had the power to define and resolve differences within the group. One of these was also established in a prison.


How does cognitive distortion try to explain criminal behaviour ?

Biases on the way individuals perceive a situation so their interpretation does not match reality.
There have been two types linked with offending behaviour:
- minimisation - downplaying the seriousness of an offence, likely to explain the consequences as being less significant than they are. This means the individual experiences fewer negative emotions as the negative interpretations of their behaviour has been reduced.

. Hostile attribution bias.
This involves misinterpretation of other people's behaviour, offenders are more likely to interpret ambiguous or neutral behaviour as hostile and in turn are likely to blame the victims for the actions.


How can cognitive distortion be supported through studies

Barbaree- found amongst 26 prisoned rapists - 54% defined they had committed an offence and a further 40-% minimised the harm they had caused to the victim.

Dodge and frame- showed children a video clip of someone poking someone else. Children who had been identified as aggressive and rejected prior to this study interpreted the situation as more hostile than those non aggressive and accepted.


Where do these cognitive distortion come from?
What may be another alternative

Come from the way children have been socialised and the way their parents have interacted with them.
Although the theory says
Poor rejection - hostile - crime
How don't we know that the child wasn't
Hostile - then was rejected - crime


How has cognitive distortion had real life application

In terms of rehabilitation of offenders.
CBT encouraged offenders to face up to what they have done and establish a less distorted view of their actions.


How can cognitive distortion be generally evaluated

- doesn't consider biological factors.
- no reference to gender.... will men be more prone to these explanations?
-correlational research


How does the differential association theory attempt to explain offending behaviour

Proposed by Sutherland - suggest that individual learn the values, attitudes and behaviours that lead to crime as a result of association and interaction with people who have more favourable attitudes towards crime.
Criminality arises from 2 factors-
- learned attitudes towards crime - when an individual is socialised into a group they will exposed to values and attitudes towards the law, some will be pro crime some will be anti crime. They may learn that certain types of crimes are committed in the community and certain aren't. How likely it is for an individual to commit crime can be found by measuring the frequency, intensity and duration of their pro crime association and there anti crime association.
- learning of specific criminal acts - the individual needs to learn specific techniques for committing crimes, this may be achieved through direct tuition for criminal peers or observation. May explain why prisoners go on to reoffend as they have learnt new techniques from other inmates.


How does farrington et al support the differential association theory

Longitudinal study of the development of offending and anti social behaviour in 411 males, the study began when they were 8, all living in working class, deprived, inner city areas of south London.
41% were convicted of at least one offence between 10-50. The most important childhood risk factors at age 8-10 for later offending were measured of family criminality, daring or risk taking, low school attendance, poverty and poor parenting.


How does differential association theory offer a more practical explanation

Easier to change social factors than it is to change biology.


How did Osborn and west support the differential association theory

Found that were there father is a criminal, there is a 40% chance of there sons committing crime before 18, compared to 13% of sons with non criminal fathers


What is offender profiling

Way way of narrowing down the search for a perpetrator by excluding all the people who don't fit the criteria. Narrowing down the field of possibilities.
Top down - begins with a pre established typology and matches this with what is known about the crime and offender to develop a profile of the likely criminal. (More of a guess)
Bottom up- involves systematic analysis of evidence at the crimes scene to generate a picture of the offender in terms of their likely characteristics. (More scientific )


What are the key questions that must be asked in profiling

What happened at the crime scene
Who would of committed that crime
What kind of personality would that person have


What is a core assumption of profiling

Criminals operate in a similar way and this reflects there personality. Core belief of consistency in crime and the MO (modus operandi) will remain consistent.


When did top down approach emerge
What are the 4 stages of crime scene investigation

1970, with the FBI. know as crime scene analysis.
1- police report, crime scene photography, pathology reports are reviewed by the profiler
2- crime scene is classified as organised or disorganised.
3- hypothesis are formed in terms of the victims behaviour and crime sequence
4- hypotheses of the offender are created eg- demographic back ground, physical characteristics and behavioural habits.


What does the profile do as well as following the four stages

The seven decision making tool
1- murder type
2- primary intent (murder or not)
3-victim risk
4- offender risk
5- escalation (how much it has escalated from previous offences)
6- time factors (time of day)
7- location factors


What is the difference in:
Behaviour towards victim - 1
Crime scene detail -2
Characteristics of criminal -3
Back ground of criminal-4
In distinguishing organised and disorganised

1- organised - victim targeted, aggressive, controls conversation.
Disorganised - victim selected at random, crime unplanned, avoids conversation.

2- o- weapons absent, body hidden from view, body transported from original murder point, crime scene orderly, attempts to clear up.
D- weapon present, sexual activity after death, Body left in view, crime scene reflects the impulsive nature of attack.

3-o- highly intelligent, socially competent, sexually competent, skilled occupation, monitors media coverage of crime, likely to be married.
D- average or lower than average intelligence, socially immature, sexually incompetent, poor work history, lives alone, lives/ works close to crime scene, no interest in media coverage.

4. -o- high birth order, inconsistent discipline as a child.
D- low birth order, harsh discipline as a child.


Who is often noted as the original organised offender

Ted bundy - American serial killer/ kidnapper, rapist, burglar and necrophile who assaulted and murdered numerous of young women and girls during the 1970s.
Organised - socially competent, young female victims regarded him as handsome and charismatic.
High intelligence - uni. Aggressive - had an abusive father.


Give an example of an unorganised offender

Author shawcross
- 11 prostitute bodies left in river
Murders showed a clear pattern
Cheap basic car
Young mental age


How can the data on which organised and disorganised classification is based on be criticised

Came from interviews with 36 of the most dangerous and sexually motivated murders including ted bundy. The data was used to identify key characteristics that would help police read a crime scene. Individuals being interviewed are likely to be highly manipulative and are not likely to be the best source of reliable info. In addition there approach might be quite different to a typical offender.
May not be a valid way of creating an offender profile as they are not representative, for one, they have all been caught. We don't know if there telling the truth in the interview, might gain joy from lying to the police.


What are 2 limitation of the top down approach

- police waste time and energy and the profile may be wrong and in the meantime the actually offender is committing more crime
- not scientific- lacks scientific credibility, lack of theoretical bases - doesn't explain why, doesn't have that scientific rigger.


Where was the bottom up approach developed

In the U.K. And associated with the work of David canter. More scientific.


What is meant by
Bottom up
Investigative psychology
Geographical profiling

1- works up from evidence collected at the crime scene to develop a hypothesis about the likely characteristics, motivations and social background of offender

2-a form of bottom up profiling that matches details from the crime scene with statistical analysis of typical offender behaviour patterns based on psychological theory

3- a form of bottom up based on the principe spatial consistency- that the offenders operational base and possible future offences are revealed by the hero graphical location of their previous crime.


What is the aim of investigative psychology

To establish patterns of behaviour that are likely to occur or co exist across the crime scenes. To develop a statistical data base to reveal important detail about the offender, their personal history, family background etc. This may determine whether there are a series of offenders or just one.


What are the 5 assumptions of investigative psychology

Interpersonal coherence - assumption that behaviour is consistent across situations.
Time and place - the positioning and timing of crimes gives clues as the were the perpetrator may live and work.
Criminal characteristics - placing criminals into categories
Criminal career- how there patterns of crime may progress.
Forensic awareness - by cleaning the come- probably have committed a crime before and bee. Through the criminal justice system.


What's smallest space analysis

Computer programme
Canter analysed the occurrence of 48 crime scenes and the offender characteristics take from 82 uk murder cases. And found 3 underlying themes:
Instrumental opportunistic - using murder to accomplish a goal and took an easy opportunity.
Instrumental cognitive - more planned
Expressive impulsive - uncontrolled, in the heat of the strong emotion and may be provoked by victim.
Canter found 5 key variables relevant to all 66 sexual offences committed by 27 offenders these were
No reaction to victim
Impersonal language
Surprise attack
Vaginal intercourse
Victims clothing disturbed
These became known as the 5 factory theory.


How may top down only help catch criminals on a small scale

Copson said only 3% of police said it helped identify the actual offender nevertheless most said they'd use it again.


What is geographical profiling

Considers were the crimes are committed, the spatial relationship between the crime scenes and how they might relate to an offenders place of residence.


What are the four main princes which all help shape a profile using geographical profiling

Locatedness- were the victim is initially met, where the attack occurs and where the victim is finally killed and finally were the body it dropped off.
Systematic crime location choice- locations me are not in any way random
Centrality. Canters circle theory
.comparative case analysis. Other crimes should be considered as being committed by the same offender.


How can the case of john Duffy support geographical profiling

Railway killer
Murdered and raped women by railway stations
Cancers profiling was very accurate with twelve out of seventeen being correct.
Profile said he had knowledge of railways and worked and lived by the crime scene this was true as they found that he worked for the railways as a carpenter and lived in Kilburn central to the rapes and murders he had committed.


What is criminal geographical profiling

Computer system
Produces a 3D map displaying spatial data related to time, distance and movement to and from crime scenes.
Known as jeopardy surface. Different colour indicate closeness to the crime scene.


How did Lundrigan and canter support smallest space analysis

However what are the problems with it?

Collected info on 129 murder cases involving serial killers in the USA. They used smallest space analysis which revealed spatial consistency in the behaviour of the killers. The location of the bodies revealed a centre of gravity and the offenders base was located in this.

- maybe over simplified. Motorways and buildings may mean there not being committed in a circle.