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Flashcards in Arabian Empire Deck (45)
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1

Which early people were based around Petra in Jordan?

Nabataeans

2

Which early people were based in Yemen?

Himyarites

3

What was the Himyarite capital?

Sana'a

4

What was the Nabataean capital?

Petra

5

Who conquered the Himyarites?

Axum

6

Which early people emigrated from Yemen to the Levant, and converted to Christianity?

Ghassanids

7

Who conquered the Ghassanids, and in which century?

Arab Caliphate, 7th century

8

Why didn't the Romans conquer the Ghassanids?

They were a buffer between Rome and the raiding Bedouins

9

Which early people were based in southern Iraq?

Lakhmids

10

Through which years were the Lakhmids prominent?

300-602

11

What was the Lakhmid capital, and which major river was it situated on?

al-Hirah, on the Euphrates

12

Who were the Lakhmids conquered by?

Chosroes II, King of the Sassanids

13

How did the Lakhmids help the Arabs to defeat the Sassanids?

They acted as spies

14

When and where was Muhammad born?

c. 570, Mecca

15

What profession did Muhammad likely hold?

Merchant

16

When did Muhammad's revelations start, and what age was he?

Around 610, 40 yrs old

17

How were his revelations handed down?

Orally

18

What two subjects dominated Muhammad's revelations?

1. End of the world
2. Transcendence of a unique God

19

When did Muhammad die?

632

20

Detail the expansion of the Arabic Caliphate between 630 and 644

1. 630 Mecca
2. 634 Damascus
3. 642 Alexandria
4. 644 Persian empire

21

What six factors made the Arabic Caliphate so effective?

1. Weak enemies
2. Desert masters
3. Channelling of a warlike people
4. Jihad
5. benign rulers
6. didn't plunder people

22

Who did the Arab Caliphate tend to plunder?

The Church

23

Who were the four first successors to Muhammad?

Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali

24

Who oversaw the transcription of Muhammad's messages?

Uthman

25

Why was Uthman assassinated?

Trying to bring the caliphate into his own family

26

What family did Uthman belong to?

Qoraysh

27

What was Ali's relation to Muhammad?

cousin and son-in-law

28

Who killed Ali?

Mu'awiya, governer of Syria

29

Who was the first Umayyad ruler?

Mu'awiya

30

Where did Mu'awiya move the capital to?

Damascus

31

Which faction refused to acknowledge Mu'awiya as Caliph?

Sh'ia

32

Which two decisive losses marked the Umayyad caliphate?

1. Constantinople,717
2. Tours, 733

33

Who fought against the Umayyads at Tours, and in what year?

Charles Martel, 733

34

Between what years did the Umayyad dynasty hold the Caliphate?

661-750

35

Name the two major dynasties of the Arab caliphate, and the years they held power

1. Umayyad, 661-750
2. Abbasid, 750-1258

36

What happened to the Umayyads after they were deposed in 750?

Fled to Spain where they ruled for 200 years

37

What relation of Muhammad's were the Abbasids descended from?

His uncle

38

Where did the Abbasids move the capital to?

Baghdad, a constructed city

39

What year was Baghdad crippled, and by whom?

1258, Mongols

40

What change in orientation did the Abbasids make?

Away from the Mediterranean, towards Persia, India and Afghanistan

41

What year did the Arab caliphate cease expanding?

750

42

What did the Abbasids do to the Umayyads?

Slaughtered them; leather cloth

43

What financed the Abbasid rule?

Tax, not expansion

44

What 4 factors caused the Abbasid collapse?

1. Overstretching
2. Shi'ism/Sunni strife
3. Dynastic struggles
4. Mongols

45

Why did the Umayyads so easily conquer Iberia?

Iberia ruled but not populated by Visigoths, so population had no reason to fight once Visigoths were defeated