Arachidonic Acid Flashcards Preview

Skin MS: Week 6 > Arachidonic Acid > Flashcards

Flashcards in Arachidonic Acid Deck (26):
1

PGE2 effects

Pain, fever, vasodilation, uterine contraction (inflammation)

Increased capillary permeability 

2

Leukotrienes role 

–participants in allergic responses such as asthma

–Appreciate role of leukotrienes in some side-effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents

3

Some Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors

•Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin)

•Celecoxib (Celebrex) (only Cox2 inhibitors)

•Diclofenac (Votaren)

•Fenoprofen (Nalfon)

•Ibuprofen (Motrin etc)***

•Indomethacin (Indocin)

•Ketoprofen (Orudis)

•Ketorolac (Toradol)

•Meclofenemate (Meclomen)

•Naproxen (Votaren)***

•Oxaprozin (Daypro)

•Piroxicam (Feldene) - more long acting

•Sulindac (Clinoril)

•Tolmetin (Tolectin)

4

Why aspirin specifically for preventing heart attacks?

Permanent (not reversible)

5

Celecooxib (mechanism, advantage, disadvantage)

Doesn't block COX1 (particularly in stomach) → Less gastric ulceration

COX2 inhibition in endothelium of coronary and cerebral circulation → suppressed prostacyclin synthesis - too much clotting → MIs

**Many COX2 have been withdrawn from market (increased risk of cardiovascular thrombosis**

 

6

Acetaminophen (Tylenol)

Blocks cyclooxygenase in CNS but not in periphery

* NOT anti-inflammatory

*Both anti-pyretic and analgesic

7

Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid)

Irreversible COX inhibitor

Eliminate thromboxane A2 for platelet's entire life (14d) (platelet doesnt have nucleus, can't generate more cyclooxygenase)

Used to eliminate thrombosis (MI)

Gastric ulceration and blood thinning (in accidents, hemorrhagic strokes)

 

8

Prostaglandins and inflammatory effects of rheumatoid arthritis

Ibuprofen and other NSAIDs used to tx sxs, but don't halt or reverse disease progression

9

Arachidonic acid --> ____ --> _________

PGE2 

Inflammation

10

Treat arthritis sxs by blocking Cyclooxygenase w/ agents such as: 

Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Celebrex

11

Glucocorticoids are _________ regulators

transcriptional

***Takes a little bit of time

12

Corticosteroids reduce numbers of _________ but increase numbers of ___________

Reduce lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, and basophils

Increase polymorphonuclear leukocytes

13

Corticosteroids reduce release of _______ and ___________ (immuno)

Arachidonic acid and cytokines (interleukin 1 & 6 and TNF)

14

Examples of Corticosteroids

•Dexamethasone (Decadron)

•Hydrocortisone

•Methylprednisolone (Medrol)

•Prednisone (Deltasone)

15

Steroids are incredibly effective _____________

anti-inflammatories

16

Toxicites of steroids

–Osteoporosis

–Immune suppression

–Peptic ulcers

–Myopathy (less prevalent)

–Cataracts

–Fluid accumulation and hyperglycemia

17

Steroids are/are not considered disease modifying agents (DMARD) in RA

NOT (those are more biological modifiers and nonbio)

18

Corticosteroids suppress immune responses (specifics)

–Suppress leukocyte numbers

–Suppress arachidonic acid release

 ------Synthesize proteins inhibiting phospholipase A2

–Suppress release of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukins and TNF

19

Eicosapentaenoic Acid

Fish Oil

20

Fish oil results in 

PGE3, Thromboxane A3 or PGI3

–Produce thromboxane but Thromobxane A3 is not effective – Major outcome is a bleeding tendency and a virtual resistance to Cardiovascular disease

•Example is maritime diet characteristic of Inuits

21

Fish oil is promoted as a treatment for ____________

Rheumatoid Arthritis

–Not mainstream at the moment

–Mechanism suggests that PGE3 is not inflammatory

22

Prostaglandin E2 causes symptoms of ________________: 

Inflammation:

–Edema

–Pain

–Redness

–Warmth

23

Inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis are useful in treating ___________ rheumatoid arthritis

inflammatory symptoms of

24

Both Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and corticosteroids inhibit _____________ synthesis

prostaglandin

25

Major effects of Corticosteroids

–Reduction in white blood cells

–Reduced arachidonic acid liberation, resulting in suppression of both prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis

26