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Skin MS: Week 6 > LE Dx skills > Flashcards

Flashcards in LE Dx skills Deck (36):

Muscle strength graded on scale of __________

1 to 5 

–0 = no muscular contraction detected

–1 = a barely detected trace of contraction

–2 = active mvmt of body part with gravity eliminated

–3 = active movement against gravity

–4 = active movement against gravity and some resistance

–5 = active movement against full resistance without evident fatigue = NORMAL!


Reflexes graded on scale of 

–4+ = hyperactive, very brisk

–3+ = brisker than average

–2+ = average, normal

–1+ = somewhat diminished, low normal

–0 = no response, absent


Hip Exam

Gait (observe normal and special), Inspection, Palpation, ROM (active then passive), strength testing, special testing


Hip ROM 

•Flexion: supine, patient bends knee to chest

•Extension: prone, patient lifts leg off table

•Abduction: patient on side, straight leg away from midline

•Adduction: supine or edge of table, cross leg over top of other

•Internal rotation: supine, flex hip, foot laterally

•External rotation: supine, flex hip, foot medially


Anterior hip/groin pain

Intra-articular pathology (ie. OA, hip labral tears)


Posterior hip pain

piriformis syndrome, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, lumbar radiculopathy (ischofemoral impingement and vascular claudication)


Lateral hip pain 

greater trochanteric pain syndrome


Trendelenburg sign 

drop in other hip when standing on one leg

Hip labral tear, transient synovitis, Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, SCFE


FABER test

Hip - Patrick test

Flex, abduct, external rotation




Hip - Impingement

Flex, adduct, internally rotate


Ober test

Patient is on their side on edge of table with the back to the examiner.  Examiner faces patient’s feet, braces body against patient’s back, lift and extend the hip.  Hold knee and foot.

No drop --> Tighter ITB

Drop = GOOD


Knee Joint Exam

•Gait Exam


•Palpation-assess for effusion (fluid)

•Range of Motion- active tested before passive

•Strength Testing

•Special Tests


Q angle

•Q angle is the angle formed by a line drawn from the ASIS to central patella and a second line drawn from central patella to tibial tubercle;

•    - an increased Q angle is a risk factor for patellar subluxation;

•    - normally Q angle is 14 deg for males and 17 deg for females;


Varus vs valgus

varus - knees further out than ankles

valgus - ankles farther out than knees


Knee ROM 

•Flexion 0-135

•Extension 0-15

•(hyperextension is called genu recurvatum)

–Medial rotation of the tibia on the femur (normal range is 20-30 degrees)

–Lateral rotation of the tibia on the femur (normal range is 30-40 degrees)



Pain factors


Timing, location, duration, severity (quality, effusion?)


Patellar apprehension test

With fingers placed at the medial aspect of the patella, the physician attempts to sublux the patella laterally. If this maneuver reproduces the patient’s pain or a giving-way sensation, patellar subluxation is the likely cause of the patient’s symptoms.


Anterior Drawer Test

Test ACL 

patient assumes a supine position with the injured knee flexed to 90 degrees. The physician fixes the patient’s foot in slight external rotation (by sitting on the foot) and then places thumbs at the tibial tubercle and fingers at the posterior calf. With the patient’s hamstring muscles relaxed, the physician pulls anteriorly and assesses anterior displacement of the tibia (anterior drawer sign).


Lachman's test


patient in a supine position and the injured knee flexed to 30 degrees. The physician stabilizes the distal femur with one hand, grasps the proximal tibia in the other hand, and then attempts to sublux the tibia anteriorly. Lack of a clear end point indicates a positive Lachman test.


Posterior drawer test


patient assumes a supine position with knees flexed to 90 degrees. While standing at the side of the examination table, the physician looks for posterior displacement of the tibia (posterior sag sign). Next, the physician fixes the patient’s foot in neutral rotation (by sitting on the foot), positions thumbs at the tibial tubercle, and places fingers at the posterior calf. The physician then pushes posteriorly and assesses for posterior displacement of the tibia.


How to test ACL?

Anterior drawer, lachmans


How to test PCL?

Posterior drawer


Valgus stress test

Test Medial collateral ligament 

Abduct, flex 30 deg, pull leg laterally while pushing knee in (valgus) 


Varus stress test

Lateral collateral ligament

Abduct, flex 30 deg, pull foot medially while pushing knee out


McMurray's test

Test lateral and medial menisci

Flex --> extend w/ valgus and varus stress

Positive: click/pop w/ associated pain at same time


Ottawa Knee Rules

X ray indicated if 

1. isolated patellar tenderness or tenderness at head of fibula

2. Inability to bear weigh to flex knee to 90

>55 years


Ankle exam

•Gait Exam



•Range of Motion- active tested before passive

•Strength Testing

•Special Tests


Anterior Drawer Test (Ankle)

tests for ankle stability - especially injuries to anterior talofibular ligament 

•supine, patient’s foot relaxed, examiner stabilizes the tibia and fibula, foot in 20 degrees flexion, draw the talus forward.  Knee can be 90 flexion.


Talar tilt test

•tests for a torn calcaneofibular ligament.
Patient supine or on side: foot relaxed, knee flexed around 60-90 degrees, examiner puts foot in anatomic position, then tilts the talus side-to-side.


Thompson test

Thompson test checks for a torn Achilles tendon. Squeeze calf and see foot move; no movement is abnormal and may indicate torn Achilles


Ottawa Ankle Rules

Ankle Xrays indicated if:

  *Bone tenderness at the distal 6 cm of tibia or fibula posterior   edge or tip of the lateral OR medial malleoli


  *Inability to bear weight both immediately and in the   office/ER


Ottawa foot rules

  *Bone tenderness at the base of the 5th metatarsal OR over the navicular   bone

  *Inability to bear weight immediately and in the   office/ER


Grading of ankle sprains

1 - no rupture

2- partial tear

3 - complete rupture 


Most ankle sprains are to 

lateral ligaments