Orthopedics: Radiology intro Flashcards Preview

Skin MS: Week 6 > Orthopedics: Radiology intro > Flashcards

Flashcards in Orthopedics: Radiology intro Deck (41):
1

Xrays: Form of ___________ radiation

Electromagnetic

2

Density  Principle: Thicker the object ---> ________ penentrability

less 

3

Components of xray

Xray tube, beam and film plate

4

Shape idea

3D --> 2D based on shape and density 

5

Radiopaque vs Radiolucent

Radiopaque (i.e. bone) - relative impenetrability to X rays

Radiolucent (i.e. air) - relative penetrability to X rays

6

An x-ray (or any test) is only as good as the _______________

History and Physical 

7

Treat _____, not xrays

people

8

Understand the test you order and its ____________

potential outcomes

9

Understand ________ and ________ of x rays

Strengths and weaknesses

10

Metaphysis vs. Diaphysis

Metaphysis - region next to joint

Diaphysis - long part of bone

11

Epiphysis

Epiphyseal Plate

Epiphyseal plate - growth plate

Epiphysis - bone part distal to growth plate 

12

Apophyseal plate

Apophysis

 

Growth plate w/ tension from tendon (i.e. elbow)

Distal area

13

Reasons to get Xrays

Pain - traumatic or nontraumatic

Miscellaneous (congenital, endocrine)

14

Complete disrupption in the continuity of bone

Fracture

15

Fracture shows up as ________ on Xray

radiolucent line

16

Fractures: Obtain ________ views (ideally in ________ planes) of involved bones 

AT least 2 views, perpendicular

17

Obtain X ray of joint _______ and ________ fracture

above and below

18

Consider ________ views in children

contralateral

19

Look for __________ of fracture

indirect signs

20

Indirect signs of a fracture

•Soft-tissue swelling

•Obliteration or displacement of fat stripes

•Periosteal and endosteal reaction

•Buckling of the cortex

•Double cortical line

21

Which is fracture?

Q image thumb

One on left - look at thicker soft-tissue (swelling)

22

Q image thumb

Periosteal reaction - healing

23

Q image thumb

Buckling of cortex 

24

Q image thumb

Double cortical line

25

Describing X ray of fracture

View

Soft tissue abnormalities

Fracture description

26

Fracture description

Anatomic location

Type of fracture

Direction of the fracture line

Alignment of the fracture

Special features

Associated abnormalities (i.e. tumor)

27

Simple vs. comminuted

Simple - one line

Comminuted - multiple fracture lines

28

Displacement vs Angulation

D - movement away from midline

A - angled away from midline (typically in terms of distal fragment)

29

Valgas vs varus

Valgus - knock-kneed (Gum between) 

Varus - in

30

Q image thumb

Foreshortened, distracted 

31

Q image thumb

Compacted 

32

Directions of fracture line

Transverse, oblique, spiral, longitudinal 

33

Site and Extent of Fracture 

Q image thumb

Jct middle/distal third

Supracondylar

Intraarticular 

34

Fracture Type

Q image thumb

Buckle (torus)

Greenstick

35

Differential Dx/Classification of Arthritis (not on test... but good to know)

•Osteoarthritis

•Inflammatory arthritis (RA, SLE, scleroderma, etc.)

•Seronegative spondyloarthropathies (Reiter’s, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic, reactive arthritides)

•Crystal deposition arthropathy (Gout, pseudogout)

•Metabolic / endocrine

•Infectious

36

Radiographic dx of arthritis is based on: 

The morphology of an articular lesion

Its distribution in the skeleton

37

_______ most important radiologic imaging modality of arthritis

x rays

38

RAdiographic features of arthritis

Periarticular osteoporosis, subchondral sclerosis, soft tissue swelling, subchondral erosion, narrowing of joint space, joint effusion, osteophyte formation, subchondral cystlike lesions

39

Xray appearance of osteoarthritis

•Marginal osteophytes

•Cortical irregularity

•Subchondral sclerosis

•Subchondral cysts

•Joint space narrowing

40

RA appearance on xrays

•Periarticular osteoporosis

•Joint effusion

•Joint space narrowing

•Articular erosions/destruction

•Synovial cysts

•Deformities

41