Flashcards in art 51-100 Deck (99):
FOUR key inventions in architecture
post- and -lintel, the arc, the vault, and the dome
the great Depression
global economic crisis triggered by the 1929 US stock market crash
SIX factors determining how individuals were affected by the Great Depression
social and finance status, education, race, gender, and location
economic sector experiencing the most severe unemployment during the Great Depression
region of the US struck with drought during the Great Depression
What goal does a study of art history try to achieve?
to understand art and its meaning in its historical context
What four factors are considered in the study of a work of art?
formal qualities, function, artist and patron goals, and audience
To what three disciplines is art history closely related
anthropology, history, and sociology
With which two fields does art history sometimes overlap?
Aesthetics and criticism
the philosophy inquiry into the nature and expression of beauty
the explanation occurrent art events to the public via the press
What types of media do modern art historians consider "art"?
visual material with meaning or aesthetic appeal
On what kind of art did past art historians primarily focus?
What five media types qualify as fine arts?
paintings, prints, drawings, sculpture architecture
What types of artwork dismissed by earlier art historians are now included in our definition of "art"?
What three types of artworks are considered crafts?
textiles, pottery, and body art
What four objects are sometimes included in art history that may not be considered art by their audience?
mass-produced posters and advertisements, telephones, forks, and furniture
True or False: Art historians acknowledge that the meaning if a work of art varies for different viewers and time periods.
true; different time periods and people of different social class may interpret a work differently.
What two modes are used in historical analysis of art?
formal analysis and contextual analysis
largest patron of visual arts, theater, and literature during the Great Depression
author of The Grapes of Wrath
institution which society trusted to resolve the problems of the Great Depression
New Deal policies
depression-era governmental policies intended to help the economy, supported the arts and literature
Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd president of the US 1933-1945 who enacted New Deal policies
31st president of US, predecessor of Roosevelt
the First New Deal
New Deal policies enacted in 1933 under FD Roosevelt
What are the effects of adding a glaze to an oil painting?
Adding a glaze can give the painting a luminous glow that tempera cannot achieve.
What is the benefit of the slow drying time of oil paints?
Artists can continue working on an oil painting over a long period of time.
The opposite of glossy
How did the invention of the paint tube transform the art of painting?
Artists no longer needed to mix their own pigments and could bring their paints outside the studio to paint in the open air.
The impact of the invention of the paint tube can be observed in the development of which artistic movement?
Who invented the first collapsible metal paint tube in 1841
John Rand, an american portrait painter
Oil paint traditionally uses what material as a binder?
This oilpainting technique involves painting the entire work in monochrome
This is the final layer applied over an oil painting after it as dried, which gives the painting a glossy protective coating.
what is gesso
plaster, usually mixed with rabbit skin glue, which is applied to a canvas as a primer before the application of tempera
what is encaustic
a wax based paint
which ancient civilization used encaustic to paint grave markers
how is encaustic applied to a surface
molten wax is fused with the surface using hot irons
what is the most common waterbased paint
casein is another water based paint that uses__as a binder
water color is (opaque/transparent)
what are the advantages of gouache
it has more body than watercolor, dries slowly, creates brighter colors than watercolor and is useful for painting small details
This recently developed paint is made from synthetic materials and has a plastic binder
oil paints became widely used during which era
true or false, in using watercolor, artists use white paint to make tint
false, artists will simply dilute the paint with more water to make tints
what is used as a binder in watercolor paint
in working with watercolor, the (lighter/darker) colors are applied first
what are the disadvantages of using watercolor
mistakes cannot be easily fixed, it lacks texture, it is difficult to learn, and it is rather unpredictable
what is the interval between c and g ascending
what is the interval between a and c ascending
what is the interval between f and b ascending
what is the interval between ^6 and ^7 in a major scale
What determines the number of beats per second created by two interfering sound waves?
the number of beats per second created by two interfering sound waves is equal to the difference in frequency between the two waves (f1 - f2 = bps).
what is the interval between ^2 and ^3 in a major scale
what are the 3 varieties of minor scale
natural, melodic and harmonic
hat scale degree is always lowered in a minor scale
how does harmonic minor differ from natural minor
the seventh scale degree is raised in harmonic minor
relative major and minor
major and minor scales that use the same pitches, but different tonics
parallel major and minor
major and minor scales that contain the same pitches
at a walking pace
which scale degrees can be lowered in a blues scale
^3 and ^5
a series of successive pitches perceived but the ear ti firm a whole cohesive
how many pitches can occur simultaneously in a melody
what is the fastest tempo
what is the slowest tempo
lento or grave
at a walking pace
what other name is used to refer to a full cadence?
on what harmony does half cadence rest?
a set of phrases making up a complete melody which figures prominently in a piece of music
how does the sequence differ from repitition?
in sequence, the repetition occurs at varying pitch levels
what symbols are used to label complete sections of MUSICAL FORM IN A DIAGRAM?
what TWO contrasting elements must a listener be able to recognize in musical variation?
continuity and alteration
what symbol is used to denote a variation on a theme?
a "prime" mark added to the same capital letter used for the theme
what meter is generally used for a twelve-bar blues?
What THREE harmonies appear in a standard twelve-bar blues?
I, IV, and V (tonic, predominant and dominant)
How is contrast used in ternary form?
There is a contrasting middle section between the similar first and last sections.
What kind of cadence is used to end each section of ternary form?
What name is ternary form also known by?
a form made up of a multiple sections, one of which recurs
how does rondo form differ from ternary form?
rondo form is less structured than tenury form and allows for more and different sections
how long are the sections of a standard 32-bar form?
8 measures each
What diagram is typically used to represent a 32-bar form
a single theme developed using a counterpoint
a companion theme to the fugue subject
the approximate repetition of a melodic idea a a different pitch level
what musical texture best describes a fugue?
At either of what TWO intervals from an original subject does the second line of a fugue usually imitiate the subject?
a fifth higher, or a fourth lower
what THREE main sections make up the sonata form
exposition, development, and reacapitualition
how many major musical ideas are present in a sonatat?
To what key does the sonata form usually modulate for the second idea
how does the exposition of a sonata form generally end?
a strong cadence in the dominant key
Which section form is the most harmonically unstable?
how does the development of a sonata form generally end?
a half cadence in the dominant key
How does the reacapitulation differ from the exposition in the sonata form
the second msuical idea does not modulate to the dominant key in the recapitulation
shorter, distinct pieces that make up a longer work
what pattern of tempos usually appears in four-movemet, but not three-movement, sonata cycles?
a dance-like "minuet and trio" movement
a study of how music actually