Flashcards in music 351-400 Deck (50):
according to the system developed in the nineteenth century, what instrumental characteristic determines its classification
instruments are classified according to what sort of vibrating medium creates their sound
what are the five instrumental classification groups
idiophones, membranophones, aerophones, chordophones, and electrophones
how is sound created on a chordophone
chordophones create vibration by the movement of strings which can be either bowed, plucked, or struck
what modern chordophones are played with a bow
violin, viola, cello, and bass
in addition to the strings, what components of a bowed chordophone allow the instrument to vibrate
in addition to the strings, the bridge and the sound post are essential in causing vibration by transmitting the vibrations from the strings into the body of the instrument, where they can be amplified and projected
What is the difference between conjunct and disjunct melodies?
Conjunct melodies include notes that are mostly next to or close to each other on the staff, where as disjunct melodies feature greater distances between consecutive notes.
What is the role of harmony in music?
Harmony, the addition of chords or other notes to the main melody, is intended to complement the primary melody.
What is a chord?
A chord has three or more notes that are played at the same time.
What is a triad?
A triad is a chord which includes a root note and the notes that are a third and a fifth above the root.
What is the name of a triad that features the first note of a scale as its root?
A tonic chord
What shorthand method is used to indicate chord progression in a piece of music?
Roman numerals are used to number chords within a scale; chord progressions are described using these Roman numerals.
What is one of the most common chord progressions in American folk and rock music?
What is a cadence?
A cadence is a chord progression that conveys a feeling of resolution, used at the end of musical phrases or pieces.
What is the name for a cadence that ends on a dominant chord?
A half cadence
What is a plagal cadence?
In a plagal cadence, a subdominant chord is played directly before the final tonic chord. The "Amen" at the end of church hymns is an example of a plagal cadence.
A cadence that conveys the greatest sense of closure ends on what chord?
the tonic (I)
What types of popular music first began to use "passing chords"?
Early blues, jazz, and tin Pan alley composers expanded on the classic I-IV-V-I progression by adding passing chords.
In a bb major scale, what is the subdominant note?
What defines music with a monophonic texture?
Monophonic music features a single line of melody, unaccompanied by any additional melodies or harmonies.
the song america contains no internal repetition, so its form is
name three chordophones on which strings are plucked rather than bowed
although there are others, the basic guide mentions the guitar, lute, harp, and zither
what three factors affect the way a string sounds
the sound of a string is affected by its material, thickness and length
what is the relationship between the thickness of a string and its pitch range
the thicker the string, the lower the pitch range will be
how does length affect the pitch range of a string
longer strings will have a lower pitch range than shorter strings
about how long is a full size violin
in order from highest to lowest, what notes are associated with each of the four strings of violin
E5, A4, D4, G3
what are f holes
the curved holes are on the tops of bowed chordophone instruments that allow the vibrations to travel outward beyond the instruments hollow boddy
what is the range of lengths for typical violas
violas can range in length from 38 to 40 cm
in order from highest to lowest, what are the notes of the strings on a viola
a4, d4, g3, c3
where is the viola held when it is played
like the violin, held under the chin of the left shoulder
what is the difference between a cello and a violoncello
there is no difference, its another name for cello
how long is the body of a cello
74 ti 76 cm
how does one hold a cello when playing it
the body of a cello is held between the legs, supported by an endpin which rests on the ground
in order from highest to lowest, what are the strings of a cello
what is the average range of a vibraphone
the pitches of vibraphone bars range form f2 to a6
what is another name for the tubular bells
the tubular bells are also known as orchestral bells or chimes
what is the only bar instrument that is struck vertically
what are some examples of non barred metallophones
the triangle, cymbals, gong, and anvil are examples of non barred metallophones
which instrument has a greater range: the xylophone or the marimba
the marimba has a greater range from a2 to c7. the xylophones range is from f3 to c7
what are some examples of unpitched percussion instruments
there are numerous examples but USAD lists the following: gongs, wood blocks, castanets, shakers, maracas, slap sticks, cowbells, and jingle bells
Why did USAD choose 1450 as the beginning of the musical Renaissance
1450 is the year the Guillaume Du fay finished his polyphonic Missa Se la face ay ale, a piece that broke away from the previous polyphonic traditions.
according to USAD, i what year did monody first appear?
what is the italian translation for the word renaissance
in what year did the roman empire fall
In what main city of what empire were many ancient greek and roman texts stored after the fall of the roman empire and prior to the renaissance
ancient sources were kept in libraries located in the byzantine empire in cities such as constantinople
when did the city of constantinople fall
what is a renaissance man
a renaissance an is one who pursues many subjects and fields from art to mathematics. The renaissance an was not necessarily an actual person nit rather an ideal that many strove to emulate
which two nations were primarily involved in the hundred years war
england and france
during which years did the hundred years war take place