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Flashcards in Arthropod 1 Deck (37):
1

What are the 2 classes of arthropods we will be concerned with?

Insecta

Arachnida

2

True or False:
The majority of arthropods are parasites.

FALSE

Few live directly at the expense of other animals (parasites)

3

Live on, or burrow into, or feed off of the surface of their hosts epidermis.

Ectoparasites

4

What are 3 "types" of parasitism?

  1. Obligatory or facultative
  2. Continuous association or intermittent association
  3. Highly host specific or not highly host specific

5

What are some examples of direct ectoparasite damage?

Annoyance

Blood loss

Myiasis

6

What is myiasis?

Infection of a host with maggots

7

What are some examples of indirect ectoparasite damage?

Behavioral changes

Self-trauma

8

What are the 2 "types" of arthropod vectors?

Mechanical 

Biological

9

What type of transmission is this:

Transmission from one host to another via pathogen contamination of the mouthparts of an arthropod, which then physically carries it to another host.

Mechanical transmission

10

What type of transmission is this:

A pathogen undergoes developmental changes in the vector, but does not multiply.

Biological transmission

11

What type of transmission is this:

A pathogen multiplies within the vector without any developmental changes.

Biological transmission

12

What type of transmission is this:

A pathogen undergoes developmental changes and multiplies within the vector.

Biological transmission

13

The efficiency of a vector is dependent upon what 3 factors?

Feeding habits

Environment

Genetics

14

What are 2 physical characteristics of an arthropod?

Segmented body (head, thorax, abdomen)

Exoskeleton

15

Q image thumb

A.  Trachea

B.  Tracheoles

C.  Spiracles

A image thumb
16

What is the functional equivalent of a heart?

Dorsal vessel

17

True or False:
Arthropods have both a central and a peripheral nervous system.

TRUE

18

Which neurotransmitter is unique to the invertebrates?

Glutamate-gated chloride channels

19

Which neurotransmitter does the arthropod have in common with its hosts?

Acetylcholine receptor

20

  1. Which of the BIG 3 would be effective against these insects?
  2. Why?

  1. Macrocyclic lactones
  2. Macrocyclic lactones target the glutamate-gated chloride channels in invertebrates

21

What secretes the cuticle of the exoskeleton?

Epidermis

22

What are the 3 layers of the cuticle?

Endocuticle

Exocuticle

Epicuticle

23

Define the following:

As an arthropod grows it must shed the limiting older exoskeleton and lay down a new elastic cutilce, and then shed the old one.

Molting OR ecdysis

24

Simplistic view of molting or ecdysis:

  1. Ecdysone is released into the _____.
  2. Ecdysone is converted to _____, the active form of the enzyme.
  3. In response to the (answer to #2), the cells of the _____ proceed to initiate molting.

  1. Ecdysone is released into the hemolymph.
  2. Exdysone is converted to 20-hydroxyecdysone, the active form of the enzyme.
  3. In response to the hydroxyecdysone, the cells of the epidermis proceed to initiate molting.

25

  1. Define apolysis
  2. During what process is this taking place?

  1. Apolysis: the old cuticle undergoes detachment from the epidermal layer
  2. This occurs during molting (ecdysis)

26

What role do enzymes play in molting?

Enzymes digest the old endocuticle

27

Hemimetabolous

Incomplete metamorphosis

28

Holometabolous 

Complete metamorphosis

29

What stages are present in an incomplete metamorphosis (hemimetabolous)?

Egg - Larva - Nymph - Adult

30

What stages are present in a complete metamorphosis (holometabolous)?

Egg - Larva - Pupa - Adult

31

Hemimetabolous vs. Holometabolous

  1. In which of these does the juvenile stage look similar to the adult?
  2. In which of these does the juvenile larva stage go through a pupal stage before becomming an adult?

  1. Hemimetabolous
  2. Holometabolous

32

Juvenile hormone prevents _____ but does not interfere with _____.

Juvenile hormone prevents metamorphosis but does not interfere with molting.

33

What would cause an arthopod to remain in larval form during molting?

High juvenile hormones

34

Insecta and arachnida are classes of which phylum?

Arthropoda

35

Which suborder of Diptera are the "long-horned flies"?

Nematocera

36

Which suborder of the order Diptera are the "short-horned flies"?

Brachycera

37