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America in the Beginning

• What are the major reasons for people not believing these sites are earlier than Clovis?
o Problems of dating
• What are other possibilities to the arrival to the New World? Other than Beringia, specifically
o By boat
• Reasons with not believing
o The earliest ______ is 16,000


Pre-clovis occupation in Florida

• 1983 or so found artifacts but findings
• something about hunters and gatherers and ability to adapt to environment well enough to hunt
• What evidence was used to determine this was pre-clovis
o Radiocarbon dating
o Lithic tools
o 14,000 years ago
o also used sporomiella (dung fungus from animals)


130kya in the Americas

• What evidence was used?
o Hammerstones anvils mastodon remains
• What problems do you see?
o Lithics are iffy…
• Problems with this article…
o They don’t look like any lithic we know of


11.09 readings



11.11 readings



The Flesh of God

• maize is flesh of God—maize is life
• maize as a staple crop drove the economy and society at large
• Olmec Jade celts as units of exchange (possible currency)
• Emergence of Divine Kings
• Early Maya and Olmec included states



• The feud
• What is the feud in question
o Who is getting credit over the important discovery of the age of the site?
 Why is this important?
 Arch is collaborative. Between local archaeologists, foreign archaeologists, local govt, communities, indigenous groups, etc.
 Shoddy deserved to be heard
o Caral might not have been the first city in the region; the entire region was expanding


Catalhoyuk—Worlds first city?

• Reinterpreting earlier work at the site
o Shrines are numerous throughout the site
o Micromorphology will reveal evidence of floor uses
• Importance of public outreach