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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (170)
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1

archaeology

the study of the HUMAN past through the systematic recovery and analysis of material remains

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classic archaelology

abour description, limited to ROMAN EMPIRE more or less

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anthropological archaeology

more theory and questions asked, more question orientd

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physical anthropology

study of humans as biological orgs--human ev and ancient DNA an primatology

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cultural anthro

the way people live, customs, values beliefs--enthnography

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linguistic anthro

study of languages

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the concept of material culture

everything that is tangible in reference to humans (even soil)

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archaeology vs history

history is looking at written docs--BUT subjective and losese non-written culture and the disempowered

arch, focuses on all MATERIAL CULTURES--BUT still know more when we have written documents

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archaeological inquiry

arch addresses anthropological questions--anthropological archaeology follows the scientific method (question-->hypoth-->research design-->analyze results-->hypoth true of false--> next question)--exception is that most arch is destructive and non repeatable

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Body Rituals of the Nacirema (reading)

commentary on how we think of other cultures
Nacirema=america backwards
holy mouth man=dentist
obsession with cleanliness

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Pristine Myth (reading)

idea that europeans colonized the untouched lands
-author is a geographer
-did aerial surveys of the Amazon
-looking at landscape
-there is no "pristine" amazon--it is clearly touched but it has not been colonized (?)

12

BC, BCE, AD and CE (and order of year and time stamp thing)

Before Christ=BC=BCE=Before common era
500 BCE
AD=anno domini=CE=Common Era
CE 500

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Hesiod's 5 stages

Greek Mythology
Age of Gold
Age of Silver
Age of Bronze (bronze armor)
Age of Epic Heroes
Age of Iron (when Hesiod lived)

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Quiche' Popul Vuh SEE LATER NOTES AND INTERNET

ancient Mayan origin story
maize god, hero twins and proper humans are made from maize

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European Renaissance

14th century-17th century
-rediscovery of ancient greeks and romans
-antiquarians--appreciation of art for sake of collecting

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Key conceptual advances

Antiquity of the earth and human kind
Darwin’s principles of evolution
Thomsen’s 3-age system
-The way people started thinking about ethics

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Archbishop James Ussher of Armagh, Primate of All Ireland and Chancellor Trinity College (AD 1581-1656)

“calculated” the age of Earth based on the bible written genealogies and other sources
-world created on Saturday October 22. 4004 BC
-people believed this for a while

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creationism and catastrophism

god created a perfect world exactly as we see t
great flood--Noah's arc
BUT how do we explain neaderthal remains or vocanic eruptions only effecting the entire earth?

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Thomsen's 3-age system

• Stone, bronze, iron
• Christian Thomsen
• Curator of Danish National Museum
• 1836 Guide to northern antiquity
• first to order artifacts chronologically, based on context of finds
• AHHH something else here

20

Principle of Uniformitarianism

18th-19th century
the same geological processes that we see happening in the present have happened in the past--uniform processes
-these processes are so slow that the earth must be ancient
-HUTTON AND LYELL ARE IMPORTANT in this moder of thinking

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Stratigrpahy and antiquity

subsurface layers produce ordered fossil groups
newer things closer to top
-John Frere 1797 says that things are under the surface and that we don't have a full understanding of things--not accepted at first

22

Darwin’s Principles of Evolution (1859)

• Book on the origin of species about animals
• Evolution is the best explanation for origin and change of species
• Natural selection is the mechanism for change
• On the origin of species about animals did not touch on humans

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Principles of evolution (19th c.)

• Change takes place over a long period of time
• An ancient earth plus slow change points to great antiquity of the human species…
• Human adaptation are physical and cultural?

24

First scientific excavation in the US

•American Archaeology 1784--
Thomas Jefferson
• First scientific excavations in the US
• Aimed to find evidence of indigenous mound-builders
• Believed that there was no way these mound-builders could be native Americans
They wanted to prove the mound builders were European

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Cyrus Thomas (1825-1910)

• Government financed research
• 12 years of research
• published report in 1894
• concluded mounds were built by Native Americans
• arch as politics

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box trench method

i think its that you dig a trench and then put box in it for safety or something

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AV KIDDER (1885-1963)

o Stressed anthropological understanding
o ONE OF MOST IMPORTANT NAMES
o Incorporated many lines of research
o Built a ceramic typology of the North American Southwest based on stratigraphy
o Also worked in Mesoamerica among ruins of the ancient Maya

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Culture

an integrated system of beliefs, traditions, and customs that govern or influence a person’s behavior. Culture is learned, shared by members of a group, and based on the ability to think in terms of symbols

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Sir Edward burnett tylor (1832-1917)

culture is learned it is not biological or genetic

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Unilinear Evolution

• Savagery→civilization
o This is clearly wrong
• Culture is shared at group level