ASN QBank Pearls - CKD and ESRD Flashcards Preview

Nephrology Board Review Pearls > ASN QBank Pearls - CKD and ESRD > Flashcards

Flashcards in ASN QBank Pearls - CKD and ESRD Deck (76)
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1

combination of a diameter > 4 mm AND access flow > 500 mL/min predicts what success rate of use of fistula for HD?

95%

2

combination of fistula diameter < 4 mm AND access flow < 500 mL/min predicts what success rate of use of fistula for HD?

33%

3

treatment of dialysis catheter-related bacteremia with an antibiotic lock is most successful with what type of infections and what success rate?

gram-negative, about 90%

4

treatment of dialysis catheter-related infection with Staph epidermidis bacteremia with an antibiotic lock has what success rate?

about 75%

5

treatment of dialysis catheter-related infection with Staph aureus bacteremia with an antibiotic lock has what success rate?

about 40%

6

randomized, controlled trial, that showed giving CKD and ESRD patients LDL-lowering therapy with simvastatin and ezetimibe had a significant 17% reduction in major atherosclerotic events over 5 years of study

SHARP (Study of Heart and Renal Protection) trial

7

- does alkali therapy slow progression of CKD?
- how?

- yes!
- reduces tubulointerstitial damage by limiting inflammatory urinary biomarkers such as endothelin (ET) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β

8

the ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes) trial indicated intensive glycemic control of T2DM does not decrease incidence of

nephropathy and cardiovascular 
mortality

9

the ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes) trial indicated intensive BP control in T2DM was associated with

greater progression of nephropathy

10

patients with this condition have normalization of BP and serum K+ during pregnancy

primary hyperaldosteronism

11

why do patients with primary hyperaldosteronism have normalization of BP and serum K+ during pregnancy?

increase in progesterone levels antagonizes effects of aldosterone

12

progression of kidney disease strongly relates to the presence of two risk variants in

APOL1 with AR pattern of inheritance

13

diabetes medication associated with increased renal salt retention and the development of edema

rosiglitazone

14

cephalosporin drug accumulation does not usually occur until GFR is

< 30 ml/min/1.73 m2

15

cephalosporin dosing in CKD patients

regular loading dose then 75% of usual maintenance dose at regular intervals

16

antibiotic dosing in CKD patient with acute pyelonephritis

regular dosing and intervals (difficult to treat)

17

progression from CKD stage 3-4 to ESRD in ADPKD can be favorably influenced by?

nothing

18

resistant upper urinary tract infections in patients with PKD and CKD stage V are BEST managed by?

fluoroquinolones

19

what is the incidence of cerebral aneurysms in patients with ADPKD within a family cluster?

20%

20

in all patients with PKD, the incidence of cerebral aneurysms is close to

2-5%

21

cerebral aneurysms should monitored if what size?

5 to 10 mm

22

what size cerebral aneurysm is at higher risk of rupture?

> 10 mm

23

in patients with the phenotype of ADPKD, what is the second most common complication?

polycystic LIVER disease

24

mitral valve prolapse is present in what percentage of patients with ADPKD?

10-15%

25

renal stones are present in what percentage of patients with ADPKD?

20%

26

MOST effective initial approach to increase small solute clearance in PD

add a DAY exchange

27

how many minutes in a day?

1440

28

how many minutes in a week?

10,080

29

BEST approach to management of PD patient at time of hernia repair

supine, low-volume exchanges x 4–6 weeks

30

treatment of hemoperitoneum in young, menstruating women if fluid fails to clear after in-and-out exchanges

add HEPARIN to dialysate to prevent blood from clotting